Primate visual cortex is hierarchically organized. Bottom-up and top-down influences
are exerted through distinct frequency channels, as was recently revealed in macaques
by correlating inter-areal influences with laminar anatomical projection patterns.
Because this anatomical data cannot be obtained in human subjects, we selected seven
homologous macaque and human visual areas, and we correlated the macaque laminar projection
patterns to human inter-areal directed influences as measured with magnetoencephalography.
We show that influences along feedforward projections predominate in the gamma band,
whereas influences along feedback projections predominate in the alpha-beta band.
Rhythmic inter-areal influences constrain a functional hierarchy of the seven homologous
human visual areas that is in close agreement with the respective macaque anatomical
hierarchy. Rhythmic influences allow an extension of the hierarchy to 26 human visual
areas including uniquely human brain areas. Hierarchical levels of ventral- and dorsal-stream
visual areas are differentially affected by inter-areal influences in the alpha-beta