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      Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Proteinuria in Diabetic Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          One of the earliest clinically detectable abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy is microalbuminuria that eventually progresses to proteinuria. The degree of proteinuria correlates with the progression of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In the glomerulus, a typical podocytopathy develops that participates in the initiation of glomerulosclerosis and the accelerated plasma protein leakage across the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) into Bowman’s space. Downstream into the tubular compartment, the proteinuria induces proinflammatory and profibrogenetic injury in tubular cells which can facilitate the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. It has long been held that hemodynamic changes and the loss of negatively charged proteoglycans in the GBM are important mediators of proteinuria. More recently, biopsy studies in humans with diabetic kidney disease have provided strong evidence that podocytes are injured very early in the course of nephropathy. This podocytopathy – which is characterized by decreased podocyte number and/or density, GBM thickening and altered matrix composition, and foot process effacement – correlates closely with the development and progression of albuminuria. Components of the diabetic milieu (high glucose, accumulation of glycated proteins, high intrarenal angiotensin II (ANG II), and hypertension-induced mechanical stress) result in activation of cytokine systems, the most important of which are transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). ANG II-stimulated podocyte-derived VEGF, through a novel autocrine signaling loop, appears to be a major cause of nephrin downregulation and the development of proteinuria. Nephrin is an important protein of the slit diaphragm with anti-apoptotic signaling properties. TGF-β1 causes podocyte apoptosis and an increase in extracellular matrix deposition. As a consequence, the denuded GBM adheres to Bowman’s capsule initiating the development of glomerulosclerosis. Good control of hyperglycemia and hypertension and maximal inhibition of ANG II are essential steps in preventing the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 15

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          From the periphery of the glomerular capillary wall toward the center of disease: podocyte injury comes of age in diabetic nephropathy.

          Nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes. Alterations of mesangial cells have traditionally been the focus of research in deciphering molecular mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy. Injury of podocytes, if recognized at all, has been considered a late consequence caused by increasing proteinuria rather than an event inciting diabetic nephropathy. However, recent biopsy studies in humans have provided evidence that podocytes are functionally and structurally injured very early in the natural history of diabetic nephropathy. The diabetic milieu, represented by hyperglycemia, nonenzymatically glycated proteins, and mechanical stress associated with hypertension, causes downregulation of nephrin, an important protein of the slit diaphragm with antiapoptotic signaling properties. The loss of nephrin leads to foot process effacement of podocytes and increased proteinuria. A key mediator of nephrin suppression is angiotensin II (ANG II), which can activate other cytokine pathways such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) systems. TGF-beta1 causes an increase in mesangial matrix deposition and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and may promote podocyte apoptosis or detachment. As a result, the denuded GBM adheres to Bowman's capsule, initiating the development of glomerulosclerosis. VEGF is both produced by and acts upon the podocyte in an autocrine manner to modulate podocyte function, including the synthesis of GBM components. Through its effects on podocyte biology, glomerular hemodynamics, and capillary endothelial permeability, VEGF likely plays an important role in diabetic albuminuria. The mainstays of therapy, glycemic control and inhibition of ANG II, are key measures to prevent early podocyte injury and the subsequent development of diabetic nephropathy.
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            Nephrin expression is reduced in human diabetic nephropathy: evidence for a distinct role for glycated albumin and angiotensin II.

            We studied the distribution of nephrin in renal biopsies from 17 patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome (7 type 1 and 10 type 2 diabetes), 6 patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria (1 type 1 and 5 type 2 diabetes), and 10 normal subjects. Nephrin expression was semiquantitatively evaluated by measuring immunofluorescence intensity by digital image analysis. We found an extensive reduction of nephrin staining in both type 1 (67 +/- 9%; P < 0.001) and type 2 (65 +/- 10%; P < 0.001) diabetic patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome when compared with control subjects. The pattern of staining shifted from punctate/linear distribution to granular. In patients with microalbuminuria, the staining pattern of nephrin also showed granular distribution and reduction intensity of 69% in the patient with type 1 diabetes and of 62 +/- 4% (P < 0.001) in the patients with type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies on human cultured podocytes demonstrated that glycated albumin and angiotensin II reduced nephrin expression. Glycated albumin inhibited nephrin synthesis through the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end products, whereas angiotensin II acted on cytoskeleton redistribution, inducing the shedding of nephrin. This study indicates that the alteration in nephrin expression is an early event in proteinuric patients with diabetes and suggests that glycated albumin and angiotensin II contribute to nephrin downregulation.
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              Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling ameliorates diabetic albuminuria in mice.

              For investigation of how the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system participates in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease, type 2 diabetic db/db and control db/m mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or 2 mg/kg of a pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, SU5416, twice a week for 8 wk. Efficacy of SU5416 treatment in the kidney was verified by the inhibition of VEGF receptor-1 phosphorylation. Glomerular VEGF immunostaining, normally increased in diabetes, was unaffected by SU5416. Plasma creatinine did not change with diabetes or SU5416 treatment. The primary end point of albuminuria increased approximately four-fold in the diabetic db/db mice but was significantly ameliorated by SU5416. Correlates of albuminuria were investigated. Diabetic glomerular basement membrane thickening was prevented in the SU5416-treated db/db mice, whereas mesangial matrix expansion remained unchanged by treatment. The density of open slit pores between podocyte foot processes was decreased in db/db diabetes but was partly increased toward normal by SU5416. Finally, nephrin protein by immunofluorescence was decreased in the db/db mice but was significantly restored by SU5416. Paradoxically, total nephrin protein by immunoblotting was increased in diabetes, pointing toward a possible dysregulation of nephrin trafficking. Diabetic albuminuria is partially a function of VEGF receptor signaling overactivity. VEGF signaling was found to affect a number of podocyte-driven manifestations such as GBM thickening, slit pore density, and nephrin quantity, all of which are associated with the extent of diabetic albuminuria. By impeding these pathophysiologic processes, VEGF receptor inhibition by SU5416 might become a useful adjunct to anti-albuminuria therapy in diabetic nephropathy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8311-4
                978-3-318-01479-2
                1660-2137
                2007
                June 2007
                06 June 2007
                : 106
                : 2
                : p26-p31
                Affiliations
                aKlinik für Innere Medizin III, University of Jena, Jena, Germany; bRenal-Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., USA, and Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
                Article
                101797 Nephron Physiol 2007;106:p26–p31
                10.1159/000101797
                17570945
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 21, Pages: 1
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