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      Protective effect of water extract of guibi-tang against pulmonary inflammation induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide


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          Water extract of guibi-tang (GB), a traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean herbal medicine, is used to treat memory impairment, insomnia, and peptic ulcers. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of GB on pulmonary inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). C57BL/6 mice were used to develop a pulmonary inflammation model by exposing them to CS for 1 h per day for 7 days. LPS was intranasally administered to mice under mild anesthesia on day 5. GB was administered 1 h before CS exposure at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg for 7 days. Our results showed that GB suppressed the CS and LPS induced elevation in inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), with significant reductions in protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels. Histological studies revealed that GB decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration into lung tissue caused by CS- and LPS-exposure. GB also significantly decreased the CS and LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. Taken together, GB effectively attenuated airway inflammation caused by CS and LPS. These results indicate that GB is a potential therapeutic herbal formula for pulmonary inflammatory disease.

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          Pathobiology of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), comprised of pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and structural and inflammatory changes of small airways, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. A better understanding of the pathobiology of COPD is critical for the developing of novel therapies, as the majority of patients with the disease have little therapeutic options at the present time. The pathobiology of COPD encompasses multiple injurious processes including inflammation (excessive or inappropriate innate and adaptive immunity), cellular apoptosis, altered cellular and molecular alveolar maintenance program, abnormal cell repair, extracellular matrix destruction (protease and anti-protease imbalance), and oxidative stress (oxidant and antioxidant imbalance). These processes are triggered by urban and rural air pollutants and active and/or passive cigarette smoke and modified by cellular senescence and infection. A series of receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways are activated by reactive oxygen species and tobacco components, resulting in impairment of a variety of cell signaling and cytokine networks, subsequently leading to chronic airway responses with mucus production, airway remodeling, and alveolar destruction. The authors provide an updated insight into the molecular and cellular pathobiology of COPD based on human and/or animal data.
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            Time course of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice.

            Inflammation of the airways and lung parenchyma plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the present study a murine model of tobacco smoke-induced emphysema was used to investigate the time course of airway and pulmonary inflammatory response, with a special emphasis on pulmonary dendritic cell (DC) populations. Groups of mice were exposed to either cigarette smoke or to control air for up to 24 weeks. In response to cigarette smoke, inflammatory cells (i.e. neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes) progressively accumulated both in the airways and lung parenchyma of mice. Furthermore, a clear infiltration of DCs was observed in airways (10-fold increase) and lung parenchyma (1.5-fold increase) of cigarette-exposed mice at 24 weeks. Flow cytometric analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) DCs of smoke-exposed mice showed upregulation of major histocompatability complex II molecules and costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, compared with BAL DCs of air-exposed mice. Morphometric analysis of lung histology demonstrated a significant increase in mean linear intercept and alveolar wall destruction after 24 weeks of smoke exposure. In conclusion, the time course of the changes in inflammatory and dendritic cells in both bronchoalveolar lavage and the pulmonary compartment of cigarette smoke-exposed mice was carefully characterised.
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              Inflammatory cells in the airways in COPD.

              Airway inflammation is central to the pathogenesis of both airway remodelling and parenchymal destruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Neutrophils, macrophages, and CD8+ T lymphocytes have been implicated in a number of studies, but a detailed profile of disease-phenotype specific inflammation has yet to emerge. The heterogeneity of the disease has hindered data interpretation while extrapolation of the results of relatively non-invasive studies to the actual pathology found in the distal lung is difficult. Moreover, prominent studies have had frequently conflicting results. Further investigations are needed to marry the different clinical phenotypes of COPD to their respective inflammatory profiles in the airways and thus improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease as a whole.

                Author and article information

                Lab Anim Res
                Lab Anim Res
                Laboratory Animal Research
                Korean Association for Laboratory Animal Science
                September 2018
                27 September 2018
                : 34
                : 3
                : 92-100
                [1 ]College of Veterinary Medicine (BK21 Plus Project Team), Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.
                [2 ]K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: In-Sik Shin, College of Veterinary Medicine (BK21 Plus Project Team), Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757, Korea. Tel: +82-62-530-2835; Fax: +82-62-530-2809; dvmmk79@ 123456gmail.com

                #These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2018 Korean Association for Laboratory Animal Science

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                Life sciences
                guibi-water extract,cigarette smoke,airway inflammation,inducible nitric oxide synthase


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