2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Kisspeptin mRNA expression is increased in the posterior hypothalamus in the rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 34

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Kisspeptin directly stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone release via G protein-coupled receptor 54.

          We have recently described a molecular gatekeeper of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with the observation that G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) is required in mice and men for the pubertal onset of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion to occur. In the present study, we investigate the possible central mode of action of GPR54 and kisspeptin ligand. First, we show that GPR54 transcripts are colocalized with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the mouse hypothalamus, suggesting that kisspeptin, the GPR54 ligand, may act directly on these neurons. Next, we show that GnRH neurons seem anatomically normal in gpr54-/- mice, and that they show projections to the median eminence, which demonstrates that the hypogonadism in gpr54-/- mice is not due to an abnormal migration of GnRH neurons (as occurs with KAL1 mutations), but that it is more likely due to a lack of GnRH release or absence of GnRH neuron stimulation. We also show that levels of kisspeptin injected i.p., which stimulate robust LH and FSH release in wild-type mice, have no effect in gpr54-/- mice, and therefore that kisspeptin acts directly and uniquely by means of GPR54 signaling for this function. Finally, we demonstrate by direct measurement, that the central administration of kisspeptin intracerebroventricularly in sheep produces a dramatic release of GnRH into the cerebrospinal fluid, with a parallel rise in serum LH, demonstrating that a key action of kisspeptin on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis occurs directly at the level of GnRH release. The localization and GnRH release effects of kisspeptin thus define GPR54 as a major control point in the reproductive axis and suggest kisspeptin to be a neurohormonal effector.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Regulation of Kiss1 gene expression in the brain of the female mouse.

            The Kiss1 gene encodes a family of neuropeptides called kisspeptins, which activate the receptor G protein-coupled receptor-54 and play a role in the neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH secretion. We examined whether estradiol (E2) regulates KiSS-1 in the forebrain of the female mouse by comparing KiSS-1 mRNA expression among groups of ovary-intact (diestrus), ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX plus E2-treated mice. In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), KiSS-1 expression increased after ovariectomy and decreased with E2 treatment. Conversely, in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), KiSS-1 expression was reduced after ovariectomy and increased with E2 treatment. To determine whether the effects of E2 on KiSS-1 are mediated through estrogen receptor (ER)alpha or ERbeta, we evaluated the effects of E2 in OVX mice that lacked functional ERalpha or ERbeta. In OVX mice that lacked functional ERalpha, KiSS-1 mRNA did not respond to E2 in either the Arc or AVPV, suggesting that ERalpha is essential for mediating the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of E2. In contrast, KiSS-1 mRNA in OVX mice that lacked functional ERbeta responded to E2 exactly as wild-type animals. Double-label in situ hybridization revealed that virtually all KiSS-1-expressing neurons in the Arc and AVPV coexpress ERalpha, suggesting that the effects of E2 are mediated directly through KiSS-1 neurons. We conclude that KiSS-1 neurons in the Arc, which are inhibited by E2, may play a role in the negative feedback regulation of GnRH secretion, whereas KiSS-1 neurons in the AVPV, which are stimulated by E2, may participate in the positive feedback regulation of GnRH secretion.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Minireview: kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) cells of the arcuate nucleus: a central node in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion.

              Recently, a subset of neurons was identified in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus that colocalize three neuropeptides, kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin, each of which has been shown to play a critical role in the central control of reproduction. Growing evidence suggests that these neurons, abbreviated as the KNDy subpopulation, are strongly conserved across a range of species from rodents to humans and play a key role in the physiological regulation of GnRH neurons. KNDy cells are a major target for steroid hormones, form a reciprocally interconnected network, and have direct projections to GnRH cell bodies and terminals, features that position them well to convey steroid feedback control to GnRH neurons and potentially serve as a component of the GnRH pulse generator. In addition, recent work suggests that alterations in KNDy cell peptides may underlie neuroendocrine defects seen in clinical reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome. Taken together, this evidence suggests a key role for the KNDy subpopulation as a focal point in the control of reproductive function in health and disease.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Endocrine Journal
                Endocr J
                Japan Endocrine Society
                0918-8959
                1348-4540
                2017
                2017
                : 64
                : 1
                : 7-14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan
                Article
                10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0282
                © 2017

                Comments

                Comment on this article