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      Transcription Factor 7-Like-2 ( TCF7L2 ) rs7903146 (C/T) Polymorphism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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          Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the incapability of pancreas to increase insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance in the peripheral tissues. T2DM is a multifactorial disease including several environmental factors with the presence of genetic predisposition. The transcription factor 7-like-2 gene ( TCF7L2) rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism is one of the most susceptible genes to T2DM discovered to date, with contribution to the disease through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway affecting pancreatic islet development, expression of several genes involved in insulin granules exocytosis, and the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 ( GLP-1) gene. Then, TCF7L2 gene seems to affect diabetes susceptibility through B-cell dysfunction that is why we studied its association with T2DM in particular. Objectives: To investigate the potential association of the transcription factor 7-like-2 ( TCF7L2) rs7903146 (C/T) gene polymorphism in patients with T2DM. Methods: A case-control study conducted on 70 T2DM patients recruited from the endocrinology clinic at Ain Shams University Hospitals, and 30 non-diabetic healthy controls age- and sex-matched with the patients. All subjects underwent full history taking; thorough clinical examination; routine laboratory investigations including hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and determination of TCF7L2 gene polymorphism by qRT-PCR. Results: The minor T allele of the rs7903146(C/T) SNP was associated with high risk of development of T2DM with an OR of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.68–2.6) and the heterozygous genotype (CT) with an OR 1.16 (95% CI: 0.49–2.7); however, they were statistically insignificant ( p value >0.05). Conclusion: Our study did not confirm the presence of significant association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146(C/T) polymorphism and T2DM; however, it pointed out the possibility of presence of high risk of development of T2DM in patients with TT genotype. Further studies with higher sample size are needed to clarify the association.

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          Mechanisms by which common variants in the TCF7L2 gene increase risk of type 2 diabetes.

          Genetic variants in the gene encoding for transcription factor-7-like 2 (TCF7L2) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and impaired beta cell function, but the mechanisms have remained unknown. We therefore studied prospectively the ability of common variants in TCF7L2 to predict future T2D and explored the mechanisms by which they would do this. Scandinavian subjects followed for up to 22 years were genotyped for 3 SNPs (rs7903146, rs12255372, and rs10885406) in TCF7L2, and a subset of them underwent extensive metabolic studies. Expression of TCF7L2 was related to genotype and metabolic parameters in human islets. The CT/TT genotypes of SNP rs7903146 strongly predicted future T2D in 2 independent cohorts (Swedish and Finnish). The risk T allele was associated with impaired insulin secretion, incretin effects, and enhanced rate of hepatic glucose production. TCF7L2 expression in human islets was increased 5-fold in T2D, particularly in carriers of the TT genotype. Overexpression of TCF7L2 in human islets reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In conclusion, the increased risk of T2D conferred by variants in TCF7L2 involves the enteroinsular axis, enhanced expression of the gene in islets, and impaired insulin secretion.
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            Diabetes Dyslipidemia

            Diabetes mellitus is associated with a considerably increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Intensive glycemic control has essentially failed to significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials. Dyslipidemia is common in diabetes and there is strong evidence that cholesterol lowering improves cardiovascular outcomes, even in patients with apparently unremarkable lipid profiles. Here, the authors review the pathophysiology and implications of the alterations in lipoproteins observed in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the effect of medications commonly used in the management of diabetes on the lipid profile, the evidence for lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions, and national and international recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes.
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              Association study of the genetic polymorphisms of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene and type 2 diabetes in the Chinese population.

              Genetic polymorphisms of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene is one of the few validated genetic variants with large effects on the risk of type 2 diabetes in the populations of European ancestry. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of the TCF7L2 polymorphisms in a Han Chinese population. We genotyped 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the TCF7L2 gene in 1,520 unrelated subjects from a Han Chinese population in Taiwan. The associations of SNPs and haplotypes with type 2 diabetes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure of the TCF7L2 gene were analyzed. The previously reported SNPs rs7903146 T- and rs12255372 T-alleles of the TCF7L2 gene were rare and were not associated with type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population, which may attribute to the low frequencies of these two SNPs. SNP rs290487 located in an LD block close to the 3' end of the gene was associated with type 2 diabetes (allele-specific P = 0.0021; permuted P = 0.03). The odds ratio was 1.36 for the CT genotype (95% CI 1.08-1.71; P = 0.0063) and 1.51 for the CC genotype (1.10 -2.07; P = 0.0085) compared with the TT genotype, corresponding to a population attributable risk fraction of 18.7%. The haplotypes composed of rs290487 were also significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (global P = 0.012). We identified a novel risk-conferring genetic variant of TCF7L2 for type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Our data suggested that the TCF7L2 genetic polymorphisms are major determinants for risk of type 2 diabetes in the Chinese population.

                Author and article information

                International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism
                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                02 September 2020
                : 26
                : 3
                : 112-118
                aInternal Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
                bClinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
                Author notes
                *Ahmed Mohamed Bahaaeldin, Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 38, Abbaseya Street, Cairo 1181 (Egypt), ahmed.bahaa1011@gmail.com
                509756 Dubai Diabetes Endocrinol J 2020;26:112–118
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 5, Pages: 7
                Research Article


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