13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Growth hormone — past, present and future

      ,

      Nature Reviews Endocrinology

      Springer Nature

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Growth hormone (GH) research and its clinical application for the treatment of growth disorders span more than a century. During the first half of the 20th century, clinical observations and anatomical and biochemical studies formed the basis of the understanding of the structure of GH and its various metabolic effects in animals. The following period (1958-1985), during which pituitary-derived human GH was used, generated a wealth of information on the regulation and physiological role of GH - in conjunction with insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) - and its use in children with GH deficiency (GHD). The following era (1985 to present) of molecular genetics, recombinant technology and the generation of genetically modified biological systems has expanded our understanding of the regulation and role of the GH-IGF axis. Today, recombinant human GH is used for the treatment of GHD and various conditions of non-GHD short stature and catabolic states; however, safety concerns still accompany this therapeutic approach. In the future, new therapeutics based on various components of the GH-IGF axis might be developed to further improve the treatment of such disorders. In this Review, we describe the history of GH research and clinical use with a particular focus on disorders in childhood.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 133

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Role of insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and postnatal growth.

          A developmental analysis of growth kinetics in mouse embryos carrying null mutations of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R), alone or in combination, defined the onset of mutational effects leading to growth deficiency and indicated that between embryonic days 11.0 and 12.5, IGF1R serves only the in vivo mitogenic signaling of IGF-II. From E13.5 onward, IGF1R interacts with both IGF-I and IGF-II, while IGF-II recognizes an additional unknown receptor (XR). In contrast with the embryo proper, placental growth is served exclusively by an IGF-II-XR interaction. Additional genetic data suggested that the type 2IGF/mannose 6-phosphate receptor is an unlikely candidate for XR. Postnatal growth curves indicated that surviving Igf-1(-/-) mutants, which are infertile and exhibit delayed bone development, continue to grow with a retarded rate after birth in comparison with wild-type littermates and become 30% of normal weight as adults.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release.

            Small synthetic molecules termed growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) act on the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus to stimulate and amplify pulsatile growth hormone (GH) release. A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPC-R) of the pituitary and arcuate ventro-medial and infundibular hypothalamus of swine and humans was cloned and was shown to be the target of the GHSs. On the basis of its pharmacological and molecular characterization, this GPC-R defines a neuroendocrine pathway for the control of pulsatile GH release and supports the notion that the GHSs mimic an undiscovered hormone.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with deletion of the insulin-like growth factor I gene.

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Endocrinology
                Nat Rev Endocrinol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5029
                1759-5037
                March 16 2018
                March 16 2018
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrendo.2018.22
                29546874
                © 2018

                Comments

                Comment on this article