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      Lup-20(29)-en-3β,28-di-yl-nitrooxy acetate affects MCF-7 proliferation through the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in mitochondria

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          Abstract

          Betulin (BT), a pentacyclic lupine-type triterpenoid natural product, possesses antitumor activity in various types of cancers. However, its clinical development was discouraged due to its low biological activities and poor solubility. We prepared lup-20(29)-en-3β,28-di-yl-nitrooxy acetate (NBT), a derivative of BT, that was chemically modified at position 3 of ring A and C-28 by introducing a NO-releasing moiety. This study mainly explored the mechanism of NBT in treating breast cancer through the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in mitochondria. NBT possessed a potent antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, NBT affected cell death through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and autophagy. NBT induced cell cycle arrest in the G 0/G 1 phase by decreasing the expression of cyclin D1. It also induced mitochondrial apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bax, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and mitochondrial membrane potential loss and leaks of cytochrome c (Cyt C) from mitochondria in MCF-7 cells and decreasing the expression of mitochondrial Bcl-2. We further demonstrated whether chloroquine (CQ), which inhibits the degradation of autophagosome induced by NBT, affects the proliferation of MCF-7 cells compared with NBT. The experiments inferred that the combination of NBT and CQ significantly promoted MCF-7 cell mitochondria to divide and Cyt C to be released from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, resulting in an increased apoptosis rate. The in vivo experiments showed that NBT inhibited the growth of MCF-7 tumor via the apoptosis pathway, and its effect was similar to 5-fluorouracil.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Life and death partners: apoptosis, autophagy and the cross-talk between them.

          It is not surprising that the demise of a cell is a complex well-controlled process. Apoptosis, the first genetically programmed death process identified, has been extensively studied and its contribution to the pathogenesis of disease well documented. Yet, apoptosis does not function alone to determine a cell's fate. More recently, autophagy, a process in which de novo-formed membrane-enclosed vesicles engulf and consume cellular components, has been shown to engage in a complex interplay with apoptosis. In some cellular settings, it can serve as a cell survival pathway, suppressing apoptosis, and in others, it can lead to death itself, either in collaboration with apoptosis or as a back-up mechanism when the former is defective. The molecular regulators of both pathways are inter-connected; numerous death stimuli are capable of activating either pathway, and both pathways share several genes that are critical for their respective execution. The cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy is therefore quite complex, and sometimes contradictory, but surely critical to the overall fate of the cell. Furthermore, the cross-talk is a key factor in the outcome of death-related pathologies such as cancer, its development and treatment.
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            Apoptosis and necrosis: two distinct events induced, respectively, by mild and intense insults with N-methyl-D-aspartate or nitric oxide/superoxide in cortical cell cultures.

            N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated neurotoxicity may depend, in part, on the generation of nitric oxide (NO.) and superoxide anion (O2.-), which react to form peroxynitrite (OONO-). This form of neurotoxicity is thought to contribute to a final common pathway of injury in a wide variety of acute and chronic neurologic disorders, including focal ischemia, trauma, epilepsy, Huntington disease, Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral scelerosis, AIDS dementia, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report that exposure of cortical neurons to relatively short durations or low concentrations of NMDA, S-nitrosocysteine, or 3-morpholinosydnonimine, which generate low levels of peroxynitrite, induces a delayed form of neurotoxicity predominated by apoptotic features. Pretreatment with superoxide dismutase and catalase to scavenge O2.- partially prevents the apoptotic process triggered by S-nitrosocysteine or 3-morpholinosydnonimine. In contrast, intense exposure to high concentrations of NMDA or peroxynitrite induces necrotic cell damage characterized by acute swelling and lysis, which cannot be ameliorated by superoxide dismutase and catalase. Thus, depending on the intensity of the initial insult, NMDA or nitric oxide/superoxide can result in either apoptotic or necrotic neuronal cell damage.
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              Control of autophagy by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

              Multiple oncogenes (in particular phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K; activated Akt1; antiapoptotic proteins from the Bcl-2 family) inhibit autophagy. Similarly, several tumor suppressor proteins (such as BH3-only proteins; death-associated protein kinase-1, DAPK1; the phosphatase that antagonizes PI3K, PTEN; tuberous sclerosic complex 1 and 2, TSC1 and TSC2; as well as LKB1/STK11) induce autophagy, meaning that their loss reduces autophagy. Beclin-1, which is required for autophagy induction acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor protein, and other essential autophagy mediators (such as Atg4c, UVRAG and Bif-1) are bona fide oncosuppressors. One of the central tumor suppressor proteins, p53 exerts an ambiguous function in the regulation of autophagy. Within the nucleus, p53 can act as an autophagy-inducing transcription factor. Within the cytoplasm, p53 exerts a tonic autophagy-inhibitory function, and its degradation is actually required for the induction of autophagy. The role of autophagy in oncogenesis and anticancer therapy is contradictory. Chronic suppression of autophagy may stimulate oncogenesis. However, once a tumor is formed, autophagy inhibition may be a therapeutic goal for radiosensitization and chemosensitization. Altogether, the current state-of-the art suggests a complex relationship between cancer and deregulated autophagy that must be disentangled by further in-depth investigation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                wangtao@gzucm.edu.cn
                +86 20 36585405 , zhangrong@gzucm.edu.cn
                Journal
                Cell Death Dis
                Cell Death Dis
                Cell Death & Disease
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-4889
                14 February 2018
                14 February 2018
                February 2018
                : 9
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8848 7685, GRID grid.411866.c, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, , Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, ; 510405 Guangzhou, China
                [2 ]The Collaborative Innovation Center of Comprehensive Development and Utilization of Shanxi Chinese Mdicine, Shanxi University of Chinese Medicine, 030600 Jinzhong, China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8848 7685, GRID grid.411866.c, School of Chinese Meteria Medica, , Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, ; 510006 Guangzhou, China
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8848 7685, GRID grid.411866.c, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, , Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, ; 510006 Guangzhou, China
                Article
                255
                10.1038/s41419-017-0255-5
                5833777
                29445224
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                Cell biology

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