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      Dapagliflozin Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling in Mice Model of Cardiac Pressure Overload

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 2
      American Journal of Hypertension
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes.

          The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known.
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            Empagliflozin decreases myocardial cytoplasmic Na + through inhibition of the cardiac Na + /H + exchanger in rats and rabbits

            Aims/hypothesis Empagliflozin (EMPA), an inhibitor of the renal sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2, reduces the risk of cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanism of this effect is unknown. Elevated cardiac cytoplasmic Na+ ([Na+]c) and Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) concentrations and decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) are drivers of heart failure and cardiac death. We therefore hypothesised that EMPA would directly modify [Na+]c, [Ca2+]c and [Ca2+]m in cardiomyocytes. Methods [Na+]c, [Ca2+]c, [Ca 2+]m and Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity were measured fluorometrically in isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbits and rats. Results An increase in extracellular glucose, from 5.5 mmol/l to 11 mmol/l, resulted in increased [Na+]c and [Ca2+]c levels. EMPA treatment directly inhibited NHE flux, caused a reduction in [Na+]c and [Ca2+]c and increased [Ca2+]m. After pretreatment with the NHE inhibitor, Cariporide, these effects of EMPA were strongly reduced. EMPA also affected [Na+]c and NHE flux in the absence of extracellular glucose. Conclusions/interpretation The glucose lowering kidney-targeted agent, EMPA, demonstrates direct cardiac effects by lowering myocardial [Na+]c and [Ca2+]c and enhancing [Ca2+]m, through impairment of myocardial NHE flux, independent of SGLT2 activity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-016-4134-x) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
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              Dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 Inhibitor, attenuated cardiac fibrosis by regulating the macrophage polarization via STAT3 signaling in infarcted rat hearts.

              During myocardial infarction, infiltrated macrophages have pivotal roles in cardiac remodeling and delayed M1 toward M2 macrophage phenotype transition is considered one of the major factors for adverse ventricular remodeling. We investigated whether dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, attenuates cardiac fibrosis via regulating macrophage phenotype by a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS)/STAT3-dependent pathway in postinfarcted rats. Normoglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and then randomized to either saline, dapagliflozin (a specific SGLT2 inhibitor), phlorizin (a nonspecific SGLT1/2 inhibitor), dapagliflozin + S3I-201 (a STAT3 inhibitor), or phlorizin + S3I-201 for 4 weeks. There were similar infarct sizes among the infarcted groups at the acute and chronic stages of infarction. At day 3 after infarction, post-infarction was associated with increased levels of superoxide and nitrotyrosine, which can be inhibited by administering either dapagliflozin or phlorizin. SGLT2 inhibitors significantly increased STAT3 activity, STAT3 nuclear translocation, myocardial IL-10 levels and the percentage of M2 macrophage infiltration. At day 28 after infarction, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with attenuated myofibroblast infiltration and cardiac fibrosis. Although phlorizin decreased myofibroblast infiltration, the effect of dapagliflozin on attenuated myofibroblast infiltration was significantly higher than phlorizin. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac fibrosis were nullified by adding S3I-201. Furthermore, the effects of dapagliflozin on STAT3 activity and myocardial IL-10 levels can be reversed by 3-morpholinosydnonimine, a peroxynitrite generator. Taken together, these observations provide a novel mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitors-mediated M2 polarization through a RONS-dependent STAT3-mediated pathway and selective SGLT2 inhibitors are more effective in attenuating myofibroblast infiltration during postinfarction remodeling.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Hypertension
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0895-7061
                1941-7225
                May 2019
                April 22 2019
                January 25 2019
                May 2019
                April 22 2019
                January 25 2019
                : 32
                : 5
                : 452-459
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]Shanghai Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease Institute, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                Article
                10.1093/ajh/hpz016
                30689697
                d00552c3-f95e-445d-84a9-a94290b446b0
                © 2019

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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