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      Designing and pilot testing of a leadership intervention to improve quality and safety in nursing homes and home care (the SAFE-LEAD intervention)

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          To describe the design of a leadership intervention for nursing home and home care, including a leadership guide for managers to use in their quality and safety improvement work. The paper reports results from the pilot test of the intervention and describes the final intervention programme.


          Qualitative design, using the participation of stakeholders.


          The leadership guide and intervention were designed in collaboration with researchers, coresearchers and managers in nursing homes and home care organisations, through workshops and focus group interviews. The pilot test consisted of three workshops with managers working on the leadership guide, facilitated and observed by researchers, and evaluated by means of observation and focus group interviews with the participants. The analysis combined the integration of data from interviews and observations with directed content analysis.


          Norwegian nursing homes and home care services.


          Managers at different levels in three nursing homes and two home care services, coresearchers, and patient and next-of-kin representatives.


          The managers and coresearchers suggested some revisions to the leadership guide, such as making it shorter, and tailoring the terminology to their setting. Based on their suggestions, we modified the intervention and developed learning resources, such as videos demonstrating the practical use of the guide. Evaluation of the pilot test study showed that all managers supported the use of the guide. They adapted the guide to their organisational needs, but found it difficult to involve patients in the intervention.


          A participatory approach with stakeholders is useful in designing a leadership intervention to improve quality and safety in nursing homes and home care, although patient participation in its implementation remains difficult. The participatory approach made it easier for managers to adapt the intervention to their context and to everyday quality and safety work practice.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.

          Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.
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            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance

            Evaluating complex interventions is complicated. The Medical Research Council's evaluation framework (2000) brought welcome clarity to the task. Now the council has updated its guidance
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              • Article: not found

              Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations.

              This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                17 June 2019
                : 9
                : 6
                [1 ] departmentFaculty of Health Sciences, SHARE - Centre for Resilience in Healthcare , University of Stavanger , Stavanger, Norway
                [2 ] departmentSchool of Health Policy & Management , Erasmus University , Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Ms Terese Johannessen; terese.johannessen@
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

                Funded by: FundRef, Norges Forskningsråd;
                Health Services Research
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