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      Association between Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Birth Size Measures in a Diverse Population in Southern US

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          Despite increased interest in promoting nutrition during pregnancy, the association between maternal dietary patterns and birth outcomes has been equivocal. We examined maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy as a determinant of offspring’s birth weight-for-length (WLZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and head circumference (HCZ) Z-scores in Southern United States ( n = 1151). Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by seven dietary patterns. Multivariable linear regression models described the association of WLZ, WAZ, LAZ, and HCZ with diet patterns controlling for other maternal and child characteristics. In bivariate analyses, WAZ and HCZ were significantly lower for processed and processed-Southern compared to healthy dietary patterns, whereas LAZ was significantly higher for these patterns. In the multivariate models, mothers who consumed a healthy-processed dietary pattern had children with significantly higher HCZ compared to the ones who consumed a healthy dietary pattern (HCZ β: 0.36; p = 0.019). No other dietary pattern was significantly associated with any of the birth outcomes. Instead, the major outcome determinants were: African American race, pre-pregnancy BMI, and gestational weight gain. These findings justify further investigation about socio-environmental and genetic factors related to race and birth outcomes in this population.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis.

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            Comparative validation of the Block, Willett, and National Cancer Institute food frequency questionnaires : the Eating at America's Table Study.

            Researchers at the National Cancer Institute developed a new cognitively based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). The Eating at America's Table Study sought to validate and compare the DHQ with the Block and Willett FFQs. Of 1,640 men and women recruited to participate from a nationally representative sample in 1997, 1,301 completed four telephone 24-hour recalls, one in each season. Participants were randomized to receive either a DHQ and Block FFQ or a DHQ and Willett FFQ. With a standard measurement error model, correlations for energy between estimated truth and the DHQ, Block FFQ, and Willett FFQ, respectively, were 0.48, 0.45, and 0.18 for women and 0.49, 0.45, and 0.21 for men. For 26 nutrients, correlations and attenuation coefficients were somewhat higher for the DHQ versus the Block FFQ, and both were better than the Willett FFQ in models unadjusted for energy. Energy adjustment increased correlations and attenuation coefficients for the Willett FFQ dramatically and for the DHQ and Block FFQ instruments modestly. The DHQ performed best overall. These data show that the DHQ and the Block FFQ are better at estimating absolute intakes than is the Willett FFQ but that, after energy adjustment, all three are more comparable for purposes of assessing diet-disease risk.
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              The role of size at birth and postnatal catch-up growth in determining systolic blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature.

              To conduct a systematic review in order to (i) summarize the relationship between birthweight and blood pressure, following numerous publications in the last 3 years, (ii) assess whether other measures of size at birth are related to blood pressure, and (iii) study the role of postnatal catch-up growth in predicting blood pressure. All papers published between March 1996 and March 2000 that examined the relationship between birth weight and systolic blood pressure were identified and combined with the papers examined in a previous review. More than 444,000 male and female subjects aged 0-84 years of all ages and races. Eighty studies described the relationship of blood pressure with birth weight The majority of the studies in children, adolescents and adults reported that blood pressure fell with increasing birth weight, the size of the effect being approximately 2 mmHg/kg. Head circumference was the only other birth measurement to be most consistently associated with blood pressure, the magnitude of the association being a decrease in blood pressure by approximately 0.5 mmHg/cm. Skeletal and non-skeletal postnatal catch-up growth were positively associated with blood pressure, with the highest blood pressures occurring in individuals of low birth weight but high rates of growth subsequently. Both birth weight and head circumference at birth are inversely related to systolic blood pressure. The relationship is present in adolescence but attenuated compared to both the pre- and post-adolescence periods. Accelerated postnatal growth is also associated with raised blood pressure.

                Author and article information

                16 February 2015
                February 2015
                : 7
                : 2
                : 1318-1332
                [1 ]Department of Global Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, 950 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, DC 20037, USA
                [2 ]Program in Physical Therapy, Department of Medicine, and Institute for Public Health, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Campus Box 8502, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA; E-Mail: racettes@ 123456wustl.edu
                [3 ]Clinical and Developmental Psychology, Department of Psychology, Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, George Washington University, Room 304 Building GG 2125 St. NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA; E-Mail: ganiban@ 123456gwu.edu
                [4 ]Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 600 Jefferson St. Room 337 Memphis, TN 38105, USA; E-Mails: tnguye41@ 123456uthsc.edu (T.G.N.); ftylavsky@ 123456uthsc.edu (F.A.T.)
                [5 ]Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 66 N. Pauline Street, Suite-633, Office 619, Memphis, TN 38105, USA; E-Mail: mkocak1@ 123456uthsc.edu
                [6 ]Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 313 Oxford House, Nashville, TN 37232-4313, USA; E-Mail: kecia.carroll@ 123456vanderbilt.edu
                [7 ]Department of Pediatrics (primary), Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital, Research Building, 50 North Dunlap Street, Room 477R, Memphis, TN 38103, USA; E-Mail: evoelgyi@ 123456uthsc.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: uriyoan@ 123456gwu.edu ; Tel.: +1-202-994-1899.
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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