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      Applying an invasion and risk framework to track non-native island floras: a case study of challenges and solutions in Hawai‘i

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      NeoBiota
      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Islands are plant invasion hotspots, with some having more non-native than native species. Many plants are recent arrivals, leading to concerns that their full spread and impacts are not yet realised. Given that islands host extraordinary numbers of endemic and threatened species, schemes are urgently needed to track the complex, species-rich but data-poor scenarios typical of islands. This study applies the unified framework by Blackburn et al. (2011) for categorising invasion stages to Hawai‘i’s non-native plant checklist and identifies potential uses and complications for species tracking and invasion management. Data deficiencies and ambiguities required lumping Blackburn et al.’s categories to align with Hawai‘i’s available data; nonetheless, this coarser categorisation describes invasion phases relevant to managers and could provide the basis for an effective tracking system. However, the unified framework does not accommodate uncertain invasion statuses, which prevents clear categorisation of species that exist outside of cultivation but are not definitely naturalised. In response to this obstacle, scores from the Hawai‘i-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) are explored to understand their application for predicting naturalisation, including standard WRA scores as well as alternative scoring methods. We show that this predictive tool may be a promising supplement to on-the-ground monitoring for data-deficient elements of a flora. Finally, a categorisation system for tracking statuses of an entire non-native flora is proposed that requires limited investments in additional data collection while following the rationale of Blackburn et al.’s scheme. This categorisation system may be used to reveal overall invasion patterns and trends in a region, leading to valuable insights into strategies for biodiversity management and conservation.

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          A neutral terminology to define ‘invasive’ species

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            Colloquium paper: species invasions and extinction: the future of native biodiversity on islands.

            Predation by exotic species has caused the extinction of many native animal species on islands, whereas competition from exotic plants has caused few native plant extinctions. Exotic plant addition to islands is highly nonrandom, with an almost perfect 1 to 1 match between the number of naturalized and native plant species on oceanic islands. Here, we evaluate several alternative implications of these findings. Does the consistency of increase in plant richness across islands imply that a saturation point in species richness has been reached? If not, should we expect total plant richness to continue to increase as new species are added? Finally, is the rarity of native plant extinctions to date a misleading measure of the impact of past invasions, one that hides an extinction debt that will be paid in the future? By analyzing historical records, we show that the number of naturalized plant species has increased linearly over time on many individual islands. Further, the mean ratio of naturalized to native plant species across islands has changed steadily for nearly two centuries. These patterns suggest that many more species will become naturalized on islands in the future. We also discuss how dynamics of invasion bear upon alternative saturation scenarios and the implications these scenarios have for the future retention or extinction of native plant species. Finally, we identify invasion-motivated research gaps (propagule pressure, time-lags to extinction, abundance shifts, and loss of area) that can aid in forecasting extinction and in developing a more comprehensive theory of species extinctions.
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              An updated checklist of the vascular flora alien to Italy

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                NeoBiota
                NB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2488
                1619-0033
                October 15 2020
                October 15 2020
                : 62
                : 55-79
                Article
                10.3897/neobiota.62.52764
                d01e8c2a-06a1-4410-89b2-85ae7c530e36
                © 2020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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