Aims: We designed a study to evaluate whether erythropoietin (EPO), given to patients on continuousambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) both with and without diabetes mellitus (DM), influences tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and oxidative stress (SOX). Methods: We assessed TF, TFPI and a marker of SOX, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in 16 diabetic CAPD patients (8 with EPO therapy), 39 non-diabetic CAPD patients (23 with EPO therapy) and 18 healthy controls. Results: Patients on CAPD showed a significant increase in plasma concentrations of TF, TFPI and Cu/Zn SOD as compared to controls. EPO therapy was related to a decrease in these parameters in diabetic patients, whereas in non-diabetic patients EPO did not affect their levels. In diabetics, TF was positively correlated with TFPI and Cu/Zn SOD levels. There was a positive relationship between TFPI and Cu/Zn SOD, whereas inverse relationships existed between TFPI and haemoglobin, haematocrit (Ht), EPO dose and triglycerides. Multivariate analysis showed that independent variables linked to TFPI levels in diabetic patients were Cu/Zn SOD, Ht and EPO dose. Conclusion: Our data suggest that correction of anaemia with EPO therapy is associated with a significant decrease in TF, TFPI and SOX in diabetic CAPD patients.