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      Black Phosphorus Rediscovered: From Bulk Material to Monolayers

      , ,
      Angewandte Chemie International Edition
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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            Is Open Access

            The rise of graphene

            Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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              Black phosphorus field-effect transistors

              Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a new class of materials with novel properties that may impact future technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials in the vast material pool is a tremendous challenge, and at the same time potentially rewarding. In this work, we succeed in fabricating field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometers. Drain current modulation on the order of 10E5 is achieved in samples thinner than 7.5 nm at room temperature, with well-developed current saturation in the IV characteristics, both are important for reliable transistor performance of the device. Sample mobility is also found to be thickness dependent, with the highest value up to ~ 1000 cm2/Vs obtained at thickness ~ 10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystal as a new two-dimensional material for future applications in nano-electronic devices.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Angewandte Chemie International Edition
                Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                14337851
                July 03 2017
                July 03 2017
                : 56
                : 28
                : 8052-8072
                Article
                10.1002/anie.201610512
                28111875
                d02a1e49-593c-41e8-94f4-38969b76ebe6
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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