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      Comorbidities and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 patients

      , MSc, MD, , MD, FFPH, , SBFM, ABFM, , SBFM, ABFM

      Saudi Medical Journal

      Saudi Medical Journal

      Comorbidities, coronavirus, COVID-19, patients, the severity of illness

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          Abstract

          Objectives:

          To determine the association between comorbidities and the severity of the disease among COVID-19 patients.

          Methods:

          We searched the Cochrane, Medline, Trip, and EMBASE databases from 2019. The review included all available studies of COVID-19 patients published in the English language and studied the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and disease outcomes from the beginning of the pandemic. Two authors extracted studies characteristics and the risk of bias. Odds ratio (OR) was used to analyze the data with 95% confidence interval (CI).

          Results:

          The review included 1,885 COVID-19 patients from 7 observational studies with some degree of bias risk and substantial heterogeneity. A significant association was recorded between COVID-19 severity and the following variables: male (OR= 1.60, 95%CI= 1.05 - 2.43); current smoker (OR=2.06, 95%CI= 1.08 - 3.94); and the presence of comorbidities including hypertension (OR=2.05, 95%CI= 1.56 - 2.70), diabetes (OR=2.46, 95%CI= 1.53 - 3.96), coronary heart disease (OR=4.10, 95%CI= 2.36 - 7.12), chronic kidney disease (OR=4.06, 95%CI= 1.45 - 11.35), and cancer (OR=2.28, 95%CI= 1.08 - 4.81).

          Conclusions:

          Comorbidities among COVID-19 patients may contribute to increasing their susceptibility to severe illness. The identification of these potential risk factors could help reduce mortality by identifying patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

            Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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              Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

              In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Saudi Med J
                Saudi Med J
                Saudi Medical Journal
                Saudi Medical Journal (Saudi Arabia )
                0379-5284
                1658-3175
                November 2020
                : 41
                : 11
                : 1165-1174
                Affiliations
                From the Public Health and Community Medicine (Radwan), Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; from the Primary Health Care (Radwan, Mahmoud, Alfaifi, Alabdulkareem), Ministry of Health and from the College of Medicine (Alabdulkareem), Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Address correspondence and reprint request to: Dr. Nashwa M. Radwan, Assisting Deputyship for Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail: radwan.n.m@ 123456gmail.com ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9715-0440
                Article
                SaudiMedJ-41-1165
                10.15537/smj.2020.11.25454
                7804237
                33130835
                Copyright: © Saudi Medical Journal

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License (CC BY-NC), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Systematic Review

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