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      Effect of LongZhang Gargle on Biofilm Formation and Acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans In Vitro

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          Abstract

          Streptococcus mutans, with the ability of high-rate acid production and strong biofilm formation, is considered the predominant bacterial species in the pathogenesis of human dental caries. Natural products which may be bioactive against S. mutans have become a hot spot to researches to control dental caries. LongZhang Gargle, completely made from Chinese herbs, was investigated for its effects on acid production and biofilm formation by S. mutans in this study. The results showed an antimicrobial activity of LongZhang Gargle against S. mutans planktonic growth at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16% and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 32%. Acid production was significantly inhibited at sub-MIC concentrations. Biofilm formation was also significantly disrupted, and 8% was the minimum concentration that resulted in at least 50% inhibition of biofilm formation (MBIC 50). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an effective disruption of LongZhang Gargle on S. mutans biofilm integrity. In addition, a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) suggested that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis could be inhibited by LongZhang Gargle at a relatively low concentration. These findings suggest that LongZhang Gargle may be a promising natural anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses planktonic growth, acid production, and biofilm formation against S. mutans.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The role of bacteria in the caries process: ecological perspectives.

          Dental biofilms produce acids from carbohydrates that result in caries. According to the extended caries ecological hypothesis, the caries process consists of 3 reversible stages. The microflora on clinically sound enamel surfaces contains mainly non-mutans streptococci and Actinomyces, in which acidification is mild and infrequent. This is compatible with equilibrium of the demineralization/remineralization balance or shifts the mineral balance toward net mineral gain (dynamic stability stage). When sugar is supplied frequently, acidification becomes moderate and frequent. This may enhance the acidogenicity and acidurance of the non-mutans bacteria adaptively. In addition, more aciduric strains, such as 'low-pH' non-mutans streptococci, may increase selectively. These microbial acid-induced adaptation and selection processes may, over time, shift the demineralization/remineralization balance toward net mineral loss, leading to initiation/progression of dental caries (acidogenic stage). Under severe and prolonged acidic conditions, more aciduric bacteria become dominant through acid-induced selection by temporary acid-impairment and acid-inhibition of growth (aciduric stage). At this stage, mutans streptococci and lactobacilli as well as aciduric strains of non-mutans streptococci, Actinomyces, bifidobacteria, and yeasts may become dominant. Many acidogenic and aciduric bacteria are involved in caries. Environmental acidification is the main determinant of the phenotypic and genotypic changes that occur in the microflora during caries.
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            Trends in oral health status: United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2004.

            This report presents national estimates and trends for a variety of oral health status measures for persons aged 2 years and older by sociodemographic and smoking status since the late 1980s in the United States. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994 and from the NHANES 1999-2004 were used. These data sources were designed to provide information on the health and nutritional status of the civilian noninstitutionalized population in the United States. Information from oral health examination methods common to both survey periods were used to present prevalence estimates and for trend analyses. Statistical significance of differences between common estimates from each survey period was evaluated using two-sided t-tests. This report provides mean, percentile values, and standard errors for dental caries, dental sealants, incisal trauma, periodontal health, dental visits, perception of oral health status, tooth retention, and edentulism. Additional estimates for monitoring progress toward the Healthy People 2010 oral health objectives using NHANES source data are presented as well. For most Americans, oral health status has improved between 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. For seniors, edentulism and periodontitis has declined; for adults, improvements were seen in dental caries prevalence, tooth retention, and periodontal health; for adolescents and youths, dental sealant prevalence has increased and dental caries have decreased; however, for youths aged 2-5 years, dental caries in primary teeth has increased.
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              The application of biofilm science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2016
                25 May 2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                1State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
                2Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
                3Wuhan First Hospital of Stomatology, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430065, China
                4Guiyang Hospital of Stomatology, Guiyang 550002, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Nikos Chorianopoulos

                Article
                10.1155/2016/5829823
                4897666
                27314029
                Copyright © 2016 Yutao Yang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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