0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Progress in Clinical Research on Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonists for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists are still the most commonly used androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) drugs for prostate cancer in clinical practice. Currently, the GnRH receptor antagonists used for endocrine therapy for prostate cancer primarily include degarelix and relugolix (TAK-385). The former is administered by subcutaneous injection, while the latter is an oral drug. Compared to GnRH agonists, GnRH antagonists reduce serum testosterone levels more rapidly without an initial testosterone surge or subsequent microsurges. This review focuses on the mechanism of action of GnRH antagonists and agonists, the developmental history of GnRH antagonists, and emerging data from clinical studies of the two antagonists used as endocrine therapy for prostate cancer.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 60

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The efficacy and safety of degarelix: a 12-month, comparative, randomized, open-label, parallel-group phase III study in patients with prostate cancer.

          To evaluate the efficacy and safety of degarelix, a new gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (blocker), vs leuprolide for achieving and maintaining testosterone suppression in a 1-year phase III trial involving patients with prostate cancer. In all, 610 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate (any stage; median age 72 years; median testosterone 3.93 ng/mL, median prostate-specific antigen, PSA, level 19.0 ng/mL) were randomized and received study treatment. Androgen-deprivation therapy was indicated (neoadjuvant hormonal treatment was excluded) according to the investigator's assessment. Three dosing regimens were evaluated: a starting dose of 240 mg of degarelix subcutaneous (s.c.) for 1 month, followed by s.c. maintenance doses of 80 mg or 160 mg monthly, or intramuscular (i.m.) leuprolide doses of 7.5 mg monthly. Therapy was maintained for the 12-month study. Both the intent-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol populations were analysed. The primary endpoint of the trial was suppression of testosterone to
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Absolute prostate-specific antigen value after androgen deprivation is a strong independent predictor of survival in new metastatic prostate cancer: data from Southwest Oncology Group Trial 9346 (INT-0162).

            To establish whether absolute prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value after androgen deprivation (AD) is prognostic in metastatic (D2) prostate cancer (PCa). D2 PCa patients with baseline PSA of at least 5 ng/mL received 7 months induction AD. Patients achieving PSA of 4.0 ng/mL or less on months 6 and 7 are randomly assigned to continuous versus intermittent AD on month 8. Eligibility for this analysis required a prestudy PSA with at least two subsequent PSAs and that patients be registered at least 1 year before analysis date. Survival was defined as time to death after 7 months of AD. Associations were evaluated by proportional hazards regression models. One thousand one hundred thirty four of 1,345 eligible patients achieved a PSA of 4 ng/mL or less. At end of induction, 965 patients maintained PSA of 4 or less and 604 had a PSA of 0.2 ng/mL or less. After controlling for prognostic factors, patients with a PSA of 4 or less to more than 0.2 ng/mL had less than one third the risk of death (ROD) as those with a PSA of more than 4 ng/mL (P < .001). Patients with PSA of 0.2 ng/mL or less had less than one fifth the ROD as patients with a PSA of more than 4 ng/mL (P < .001) and had significantly better survival than those with PSA of more than 0.2 to 4 ng/mL or less (P < .001). Median survival was 13 months for patients with a PSA of more than 4 ng/mL, 44 months for patients with PSA of more than 0.2 to 4 ng/mL or less, and 75 months for patients with PSA of 0.2 ng/mL or less. A PSA of 4 ng/mL or less after 7 months of AD is a strong predictor of survival. This data should be used to tailor future trial design for D2 prostate cancer.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in tumor blood vessels.

              In adult humans, the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor is expressed only in the granulosa cells of the ovary and the Sertoli cells of the testis. It is minimally expressed by the endothelial cells of gonadal blood vessels. We used immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques involving four separate FSH-receptor-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize different FSH receptor epitopes and in situ hybridization to detect FSH receptor in tissue samples from patients with a wide range of tumors. Immunoelectron microscopy was used to detect FSH receptor in mouse tumors. In all 1336 patients examined, FSH receptor was expressed by endothelial cells in tumors of all grades, including early T1 tumors. The tumors were located in the prostate, breast, colon, pancreas, urinary bladder, kidney, lung, liver, stomach, testis, and ovary. In specimens obtained during surgery performed to remove tumors, the FSH receptor was not expressed in the normal tissues located more than 10 mm from the tumors. The tumor lymphatic vessels did not express FSH receptor. The endothelial cells that expressed FSH receptor were located at the periphery of the tumors in a layer that was approximately 10 mm thick; this layer extended both into and outside of the tumor. Immunoelectron microscopy in mice with xenograft tumors, after perfusion with anti–FSH-receptor antibodies coupled to colloidal gold, showed that the FSH receptor is exposed on the luminal endothelial surface and can bind and internalize circulating ligands. FSH receptor is selectively expressed on the surface of the blood vessels of a wide range of tumors. (Funded by INSERM.).
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                16 February 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 639-649
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University , Nanchang, 330000, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ming Ma Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University , Nanchang, 330000, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China Email mm15070835359@163.com
                Article
                291369
                10.2147/DDDT.S291369
                7896730
                © 2021 Liu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 60, Pages: 11
                Funding
                Funded by: no funding;
                There is no funding to report.
                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article