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Chronic allograft nephropathy

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      Abstract

      Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is the leading cause of renal allograft loss in paediatric renal transplant recipients. CAN is the result of immunological and nonimmunological injury, including acute rejection episodes, hypoperfusion, ischaemia reperfusion, calcineurin toxicity, infection and recurrent disease. The development of CAN is often insidious and may be preceded by subclinical rejection in a well-functioning allograft. Classification of CAN is histological using the Banff classification of renal allograft pathology with classic findings of interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis, fibrointimal hyperplasia and arteriolar hyalinosis. Although improvement in immunosuppression has led to greater 1-year graft survival rates, chronic graft loss remains relatively unchanged and opportunistic infectious complications remain a problem. Protocol biopsy monitoring is not current practice in paediatric transplantation for CAN monitoring but may have a place if new treatment options become available. Newer immunosuppression regimens, closer monitoring of the renal allograft and management of subclinical rejection may lead to reduced immune injury leading to CAN in the paediatric population but must be weighed against the risk of increased immunosuppression and calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity.

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      The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.

      Standardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology. Banff 97 grew from an international consensus discussion begun at Banff and continued via the Internet. This schema developed from (a) analysis of data using the Banff classification, (b) publication of and experience with the CCTT modification, (c) international conferences, and (d) data from recent studies on impact of vasculitis on transplant outcome. Semiquantitative lesion scoring continues to focus on tubulitis and arteritis but includes a minimum threshold for interstitial inflammation. Banff 97 defines "types" of acute/active rejection. Type I is tubulointerstitial rejection without arteritis. Type II is vascular rejection with intimal arteritis, and type III is severe rejection with transmural arterial changes. Biopsies with only mild inflammation are graded as "borderline/suspicious for rejection." Chronic/sclerosing allograft changes are graded based on severity of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Antibody-mediated rejection, hyperacute or accelerated acute in presentation, is also categorized, as are other significant allograft findings. The Banff 97 working classification refines earlier schemas and represents input from two classifications most widely used in clinical rejection trials and in clinical practice worldwide. Major changes include the following: rejection with vasculitis is separated from tubulointerstitial rejection; severe rejection requires transmural changes in arteries; "borderline" rejection can only be interpreted in a clinical context; antibody-mediated rejection is further defined, and lesion scoring focuses on most severely involved structures. Criteria for specimen adequacy have also been modified. Banff 97 represents a significant refinement of allograft assessment, developed via international consensus discussions.
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        The natural history of chronic allograft nephropathy.

        With improved immunosuppression and early allograft survival, chronic allograft nephropathy has become the dominant cause of kidney-transplant failure. We evaluated the natural history of chronic allograft nephropathy in a prospective study of 120 recipients with type 1 diabetes, all but 1 of whom had received kidney-pancreas transplants. We obtained 961 kidney-transplant-biopsy specimens taken regularly from the time of transplantation to 10 years thereafter. Two distinctive phases of injury were evident as chronic allograft nephropathy evolved. An initial phase of early tubulointerstitial damage from ischemic injury (P<0.05), prior severe rejection (P<0.01), and subclinical rejection (P<0.01) predicted mild disease by one year, which was present in 94.2 percent of patients. Early subclinical rejection was common (affecting 45.7 percent of biopsy specimens at three months), and the risk was increased by the occurrence of a prior episode of severe rejection and reduced by tacrolimus and mycophenolate therapy (both P<0.05) and gradually abated after one year. Both subclinical rejection and chronic rejection were associated with increased tubulointerstitial damage (P<0.01). Beyond one year, a later phase of chronic allograft nephropathy was characterized by microvascular and glomerular injury. Chronic rejection (defined as persistent subclinical rejection for two years or longer) was uncommon (5.8 percent). Progressive high-grade arteriolar hyalinosis with luminal narrowing, increasing glomerulosclerosis, and additional tubulointerstitial damage was accompanied by the use of calcineurin inhibitors. Nephrotoxicity, implicated in late ongoing injury, was almost universal at 10 years, even in grafts with excellent early histologic findings. By 10 years, severe chronic allograft nephropathy was present in 58.4 percent of patients, with sclerosis in 37.3 percent of glomeruli. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular damage, once established, was irreversible, resulting in declining renal function and graft failure. Chronic allograft nephropathy represents cumulative and incremental damage to nephrons from time-dependent immunologic and nonimmunologic causes. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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          Banff '05 Meeting Report: differential diagnosis of chronic allograft injury and elimination of chronic allograft nephropathy ('CAN').

          The 8th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held in Edmonton, Canada, 15-21 July 2005. Major outcomes included the elimination of the non-specific term "chronic allograft nephropathy" (CAN) from the Banff classification for kidney allograft pathology, and the recognition of the entity of chronic antibody-mediated rejection. Participation of B cells in allograft rejection and genomics markers of rejection were also major subjects addressed by the conference.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Paediatrics, The University of Sydney, Nepean Clinical School, Nepean Hospital, Sydney, NSW Australia
            [2 ]Department of Renal Medicine, The University of Sydney, Western Clinical School, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW Australia
            [3 ]Centre for Kidney Research, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, The University of Sydney, Western Clinical School, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW Australia
            [4 ]Centre for Kidney Research, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Lock Bag 4001, Westmead, 2145 NSW Sydney, Australia
            Contributors
            +61-2-98453430 , +61-2-98453432 , Stephena@chw.edu.au
            Journal
            Pediatr Nephrol
            Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
            Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            0931-041X
            1432-198X
            27 June 2008
            August 2009
            : 24
            : 8
            : 1465-1471
            2697362
            18584214
            869
            10.1007/s00467-008-0869-z
            © IPNA 2008
            Categories
            Educational Review
            Custom metadata
            © IPNA 2009

            Nephrology

            kidney transplantation, chronic allograft nephropathy, cni, rejection

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