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      Targeted therapeutic options and future perspectives for HER2-positive breast cancer

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          Abstract

          Over the past 2 decades, there has been an extraordinary progress in the regimens developed for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) are commonly recommended anti-HER2 target agents by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This review summarizes the most significant and updated research on clinical scenarios related to HER2-positive breast cancer management in order to revise the guidelines of everyday clinical practices. In this article, we present the data on anti-HER2 clinical research of neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic studies from the past 2 decades. We also highlight some of the promising strategies that should be critically considered. Lastly, this review lists some of the ongoing clinical trials, findings of which may soon be available.

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          Pathological complete response and long-term clinical benefit in breast cancer: the CTNeoBC pooled analysis.

          Pathological complete response has been proposed as a surrogate endpoint for prediction of long-term clinical benefit, such as disease-free survival, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). We had four key objectives: to establish the association between pathological complete response and EFS and OS, to establish the definition of pathological complete response that correlates best with long-term outcome, to identify the breast cancer subtypes in which pathological complete response is best correlated with long-term outcome, and to assess whether an increase in frequency of pathological complete response between treatment groups predicts improved EFS and OS. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Medline for clinical trials of neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer. To be eligible, studies had to meet three inclusion criteria: include at least 200 patients with primary breast cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery; have available data for pathological complete response, EFS, and OS; and have a median follow-up of at least 3 years. We compared the three most commonly used definitions of pathological complete response--ypT0 ypN0, ypT0/is ypN0, and ypT0/is--for their association with EFS and OS in a responder analysis. We assessed the association between pathological complete response and EFS and OS in various subgroups. Finally, we did a trial-level analysis to assess whether pathological complete response could be used as a surrogate endpoint for EFS or OS. We obtained data from 12 identified international trials and 11 955 patients were included in our responder analysis. Eradication of tumour from both breast and lymph nodes (ypT0 ypN0 or ypT0/is ypN0) was better associated with improved EFS (ypT0 ypN0: hazard ratio [HR] 0·44, 95% CI 0·39-0·51; ypT0/is ypN0: 0·48, 0·43-0·54) and OS (0·36, 0·30-0·44; 0·36, 0·31-0·42) than was tumour eradication from the breast alone (ypT0/is; EFS: HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·55-0·66; OS 0·51, 0·45-0·58). We used the ypT0/is ypN0 definition for all subsequent analyses. The association between pathological complete response and long-term outcomes was strongest in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (EFS: HR 0·24, 95% CI 0·18-0·33; OS: 0·16, 0·11-0·25) and in those with HER2-positive, hormone-receptor-negative tumours who received trastuzumab (EFS: 0·15, 0·09-0·27; OS: 0·08, 0·03, 0·22). In the trial-level analysis, we recorded little association between increases in frequency of pathological complete response and EFS (R(2)=0·03, 95% CI 0·00-0·25) and OS (R(2)=0·24, 0·00-0·70). Patients who attain pathological complete response defined as ypT0 ypN0 or ypT0/is ypN0 have improved survival. The prognostic value is greatest in aggressive tumour subtypes. Our pooled analysis could not validate pathological complete response as a surrogate endpoint for improved EFS and OS. US Food and Drug Administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The HER-2 receptor and breast cancer: ten years of targeted anti-HER-2 therapy and personalized medicine.

            The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) oncogene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that has evolved as a major classifier of invasive breast cancer and target of therapy for the disease. The validation of the general prognostic significance of HER-2 gene amplification and protein overexpression in the absence of anti-HER-2 targeted therapy is discussed in a study of 107 published studies involving 39,730 patients, which produced an overall HER-2-positive rate of 22.2% and a mean relative risk for overall survival (OS) of 2.74. The issue of HER-2 status in primary versus metastatic breast cancer is considered along with a section on the features of metastatic HER-2-positive disease. The major marketed slide-based HER-2 testing approaches, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and chromogenic in situ hybridization, are presented and contrasted in detail against the background of the published American Society of Clinical Oncology-College of American Pathologists guidelines for HER-2 testing. Testing issues, such as the impact of chromosome 17 polysomy and local versus central HER-2 testing, are also discussed. Emerging novel HER-2 testing techniques, including mRNA-based testing by real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA microarray methods, HER-2 receptor dimerization, phosphorylated HER-2 receptors, and HER-2 status in circulating tumor cells, are also considered. A series of biomarkers potentially associated with resistance to trastuzumab is discussed with emphasis on the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten/Akt and insulin-like growth factor receptor pathways. The efficacy results for the more recently approved small molecule HER-1/HER-2 kinase inhibitor lapatinib are also presented along with a more limited review of markers of resistance for this agent. Additional topics in this section include combinations of both anti-HER-2 targeted therapies together as well as with novel agents including bevacizumab, everolimus, and tenespimycin. A series of novel HER-2-targeting agents is also presented, including pertuzumab, ertumaxomab, HER-2 vaccines, and recently discovered tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Biomarkers predictive of HER-2 targeted therapy toxicity are included, and the review concludes with a consideration of HER-2 status in the prediction of response to non-HER-2 targeted treatments including hormonal therapy, anthracyclines, and taxanes.
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              Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy regimens in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: a randomized phase II cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA).

              Pertuzumab (P) combined with trastuzumab (H)-based chemotherapy improves efficacy in early and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer. We assessed the tolerability, with particular focus on cardiac safety, of H and P with chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer. In this multicenter, open-label phase II study, patients with operable, locally advanced, or inflammatory breast cancer were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to receive six neoadjuvant cycles q3w (Arm A: 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide [FEC] + H + P ×3 → docetaxel [T] + H + P ×3; Arm B: FEC ×3 → T + H + P ×3; Arm C: T + carboplatin + H [TCH]+P ×6). pCR was assessed at surgery and adjuvant therapy given to complete 1 year of H. Two hundred twenty-five patients were randomized. During neoadjuvant treatment, two patients (2.7%; Arm B) experienced symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and 11 patients (Arm A: 4 [5.6%]; Arm B: 4 [5.3%]; Arm C: 3 [3.9%]) had declines in left ventricular ejection fraction of ≥10% points from baseline to <50%. Diarrhea was the most common adverse event. pCR (ypT0/is) was reported for 61.6% (Arm A), 57.3% (Arm B), and 66.2% (Arm C) of patients. The combination of P with H and standard chemotherapy resulted in low rates of symptomatic LVSD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                xubinghe@medmail.com.cn
                Journal
                Signal Transduct Target Ther
                Signal Transduct Target Ther
                Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2095-9907
                2059-3635
                13 September 2019
                13 September 2019
                2019
                : 4
                : 34
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9889 6335, GRID grid.413106.1, Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, , Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, ; No. 17, Panjiayuannanli, Chaoyang District, 100021 Beijing, China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9889 6335, GRID grid.413106.1, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, , Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, ; No. 17, Panjiayuannanli, Chaoyang District, 100021 Beijing, China
                Article
                69
                10.1038/s41392-019-0069-2
                6799843
                31637013
                d0312dbc-4a7b-4989-9803-7c9269926d78
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 16 June 2019
                : 22 August 2019
                : 22 August 2019
                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                breast cancer,drug development
                breast cancer, drug development

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