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      Thermal Runaway of Li-Ion Cells: How Internal Dynamics, Mass Ejection, and Heat Vary with Cell Geometry and Abuse Type

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          Abstract

          Thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries can involve various types of failure mechanisms each with their own unique characteristics. Using fractional thermal runaway calorimetry and high-speed radiography, the response of three different geometries of cylindrical cell (18650, 21700, and D-cell) to different abuse mechanisms (thermal, internal short circuiting, and nail penetration) are quantified and statistically examined. Correlations between the geometry of cells and their thermal behavior are identified, such as increasing heat output per amp-hour (kJ Ah −1) of cells with increasing cell diameter during nail penetration. High-speed radiography reveals that the rate of thermal runaway propagation within cells is generally highest for nail penetration where there is a relative increase in rate of propagation with increasing diameter, compared to thermal or internal short-circuiting abuse. For a given cell model tested under the same conditions, a distribution of heat output is observed with a trend of increasing heat output with increased mass ejection. Finally, internal temperature measurements using thermocouples embedded in the penetrating nail are shown to be unreliable thus demonstrating the need for care when using thermocouples where the temperature is rapidly changing. All data used in this manuscript are open access through the NREL and NASA Battery Failure Databank.

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          Most cited references21

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          In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

          Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.
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            Thermal-runaway experiments on consumer Li-ion batteries with metal-oxide and olivin-type cathodes

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              Investigating the thermal runaway mechanisms of lithium-ion batteries based on thermal analysis database

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Journal of The Electrochemical Society
                J. Electrochem. Soc.
                The Electrochemical Society
                0013-4651
                1945-7111
                February 09 2022
                February 01 2022
                February 09 2022
                February 01 2022
                : 169
                : 2
                : 020526
                Article
                10.1149/1945-7111/ac4fef
                d03712de-15f1-4de7-afd4-99d7ebff35c7
                © 2022

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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