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      Seasonal distribution of active systemic lupus erythematosus and its correlation with meteorological factors


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          To explore the characteristics of seasonal distribution of active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the influences of meteorological factors including temperature and humidity on active systemic lupus erythematosus.


          The characteristics of seasonal distribution of active SLE and its correlation with meteorological factors were retrospectively analyzed in 640 patients living in the city of Zhanjiang, China and had active SLE between January 1997 and December 2006.


          In winter, when there are weaker ultraviolet (UV) rays, the ratio of patients with active SLE to total inpatients was 3.89 ‰, which is significantly higher than in other seasons with stronger UV rays, including 2.17 ‰ in spring, 1.87 ‰ in summer and 2.12 ‰ in autumn. The number of patients with active SLE had significant negative correlation with mean temperature and was not significantly related to mean humidity.


          Active SLE has the characteristics of seasonal distribution and is associated with temperature. The mechanism remains to be further studied.

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          Most cited references48

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          Seasonality of infectious diseases and severe acute respiratory syndrome–what we don't know can hurt us

          Summary The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus caused severe disease and heavy economic losses before apparently coming under complete control. Our understanding of the forces driving seasonal disappearance and recurrence of infectious diseases remains fragmentary, thus limiting any predictions about whether, or when, SARS will recur. It is true that most established respiratory pathogens of human beings recur in wintertime, but a new appreciation for the high burden of disease in tropical areas reinforces questions about explanations resting solely on cold air or low humidity. Seasonal variation in host physiology may also contribute. Newly emergent zoonotic diseases such as ebola or pandemic strains of influenza have recurred in unpredictable patterns. Most established coronaviruses exhibit winter seasonality, with a unique ability to establish persistent infections in a minority of infected animals. Because SARS coronavirus RNA can be detected in the stool of some individuals for at least 9 weeks, recurrence of SARS from persistently shedding human or animal reservoirs is biologically plausible.
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            Recent advances in the genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus.

            Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of antinuclear autoantibodies and the inflammatory infiltration of many organ systems. SLE is a complex disorder in which multiple genetic variants, together with environmental and hormonal factors, contribute to disease risk. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of the genetic contribution to SLE in light of recent genome-wide association studies, which have brought the total number of confirmed SLE susceptibility loci to 29. In the second section, we explore the functional implications of these risk loci and, in particular, highlight the role that many of these genes play in the Toll-like receptor and type I interferon signaling pathways. Finally, we discuss the genetic overlap between SLE and other autoimmune and inflammatory conditions as several risk loci are shared among multiple disorders, suggesting common underlying pathogenic mechanisms.
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              Sex hormones and systemic lupus erythematosus.

              The role of estrogen, prolactin, pregnancy and androgen (including DHEA) in SLE is reviewed. A comlex interaction of multiple sex hormones is involved in SLE.

                Author and article information

                Clinics (Sao Paulo)
                Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
                June 2011
                : 66
                : 6
                : 1009-1013
                Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang, China.
                Author notes
                E-mail: hf-liu@ 123456263.net Tel.: 86 759 2387583

                *Contact author

                Copyright © 2011 Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 3 February 2011
                : 20 February 2011
                : 10 March 2011
                Page count
                Pages: 5
                Clinical Science

                humidity,temperature,systemic lupus erythematosus,distribution,season
                humidity, temperature, systemic lupus erythematosus, distribution, season


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