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      Ginkgo biloba: a natural reducing agent for the synthesis of cytocompatible graphene

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          Abstract

          Background

          Graphene is a novel two-dimensional planar nanocomposite material consisting of rings of carbon atoms with a hexagonal lattice structure. Graphene exhibits unique physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, elasticity, and cytocompatible properties that lead to many potential biomedical applications. Nevertheless, the water-insoluble property of graphene restricts its application in various aspects of biomedical fields. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find a novel biological approach for an efficient method to synthesize water-soluble and cytocompatible graphene using Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition, we investigated the biocompatibility effects of graphene in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

          Materials and methods

          Synthesized graphene oxide (GO) and GbE-reduced GO (Gb-rGO) were characterized using various sequences of techniques: ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. Biocompatibility of GO and Gb-rGO was assessed in human breast cancer cells using a series of assays, including cell viability, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity.

          Results

          The successful synthesis of graphene was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. DLS analysis was performed to determine the average size of GO and Gb-rGO. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the crystalline nature of graphene. SEM was used to investigate the surface morphologies of GO and Gb-rGO. AFM was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene and the height profile of GO and Gb-rGO. The formation of defects in Gb-rGO was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the prepared GO and Gb-rGO was investigated using a water-soluble tetrazolium 8 assay on human breast cancer cells. GO exhibited a dose-dependent toxicity, whereas Gb-rGO-treated cells showed significant biocompatibility and increased ALP activity compared to GO.

          Conclusion

          In this work, a nontoxic natural reducing agent of GbE was used to prepare soluble graphene. The as-prepared Gb-rGO showed significant biocompatibility with human cancer cells. This simple, cost-effective, and green procedure offers an alternative route for large-scale production of rGO, and could be used for various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensing, and molecular imaging.

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          Most cited references 99

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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            Honeycomb carbon: a review of graphene.

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              Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial.

              Every few years, a new material with unique properties emerges and fascinates the scientific community, typical recent examples being high-temperature superconductors and carbon nanotubes. Graphene is the latest sensation with unusual properties, such as half-integer quantum Hall effect and ballistic electron transport. This two-dimensional material which is the parent of all graphitic carbon forms is strictly expected to comprise a single layer, but there is considerable interest in investigating two-layer and few-layer graphenes as well. Synthesis and characterization of graphenes pose challenges, but there has been considerable progress in the last year or so. Herein, we present the status of graphene research which includes aspects related to synthesis, characterization, structure, and properties.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                2014
                2014
                07 January 2014
                : 9
                : 363-377
                Affiliations
                Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sangiliyandi Gurunathan; Jin-Hoi Kim, Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangin-gu, Seoul 143-701, South Korea, Email gsangiliyandi@ 123456yahoo.com ; jhkim541@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr
                Article
                ijn-9-363
                10.2147/IJN.S53538
                3890967
                © 2014 Gurunathan et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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