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      Clinical applications of Doppler ultrasonography for thyroid disease: consensus statement by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 3 , 5 , 3 , 6 , 7 , Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR), Korean Society of Radiology

      Ultrasonography

      Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine

      Thyroid, Doppler ultrasound

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          Abstract

          Doppler ultrasonography (US) is widely used for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer, and diffuse parenchymal disease, as well as for guidance in various US-guided procedures, including biopsy and ablation. However, controversies remain regarding the appropriate use and interpretation of Doppler US. Therefore, the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology organized a taskforce to develop a consensus statement on the clinical use of Doppler US for thyroid disease. The review and recommendations in this article are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus of experts.

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          Most cited references 99

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          Risk of malignancy in nonpalpable thyroid nodules: predictive value of ultrasound and color-Doppler features.

          The aim of the study was to correlate the sonographic [ultrasound (US)] and color-Doppler (CFD) findings with the results of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and of pathologic staging of resected carcinomas to establish: 1) the relative importance of US features as risk factors of malignancy; and 2) a cost-effective management of nonpalpable thyroid nodules. Four hundred ninety-four consecutive patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (8-15 mm) were evaluated by US, CFD, and US-FNA. Ninety-two patients with inadequate cytology were excluded from the study. All patients with suspicious or malignant cytology underwent surgery, whereas subjects with benign cytology had clinical and US control 6 months later. Thyroid malignancies were observed in 18 of 195 (9.2%) solitary thyroid nodules and in 13 of 207 (6.3%) multinodular goiters. Cancer prevalence was similar in nodules greater or smaller than 10 mm (9.1 vs. 7.0%). Extracapsular growth (pT(4)) was present in 35.5%, and nodal involvement in 19.4% of neoplastic lesions, with no significant differences between tumors greater or smaller than 10 mm. At US cancers presented a solid hypoechoic appearance in 87% of cases, irregular or blurred margins in 77.4%, an intranodular vascular pattern in 74.2%, and microcalcifications in 29.0%. Irregular margins (RR 16.83), intranodular vascular spots (RR 14.29), and microcalcifications (RR 4.97) were independent risk factors of malignancy. FNA performed on hypoechoic nodules with at least one risk factor was able to identify 87% of the cancers at the expence of cytological evaluation of 38.4% of nonpalpable lesions. The majority of nonpalpable thyroid tumors can be identified by cytological evaluation of lesions presenting hypoechoic appearance in conjunction with one independent risk factor. Due to the nonnegligible prevalence of extracapsular growth and nodal metastasis, US-FNA should be performed on all 8-15 mm hypoechoic nodules with irregular margins, intranodular vascular spots or microcalcifications. Nonpalpable lesions of the thyroid without risk factors should be followed by means of clinical and US evaluation.
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            Thyroiditis.

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              Radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules: safety and imaging follow-up in 236 patients.

              This study evaluated the safety and volume reduction of ultrasonography (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for benign thyroid nodules, and the factors affecting the results obtained. A total of 302 benign thyroid nodules in 236 euthyroid patients underwent RFA between June 2002 and January 2005. RFA was carried out using an internally cooled electrode under local anesthesia. The volume-reduction ratio (VRR) was assessed by US and safety was determined by observing the complications during the follow-up period (1-41 months). The correlation between the VRR and several factors (patient age, volume and composition of the index nodule) was evaluated. The volume of index nodules was 0.11-95.61 ml (mean, 6.13 +/- 9.59 ml). After ablation, the volume of index nodules decreased to 0.00-26.07 ml (mean, 1.12 +/- 2.92 ml) and the VRR was 12.52-100% (mean, 84.11 +/- 14.93%) at the last follow-up. A VRR greater than 50% was observed in 91.06% of nodules, and 27.81% of index nodules disappeared. The complications encountered were pain, hematoma and transient voice changes. In conclusion, RFA is a safe modality effective at reducing volume in benign thyroid nodules.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ultrasonography
                Ultrasonography
                USG
                Ultrasonography
                Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine
                2288-5919
                2288-5943
                October 2020
                25 August 2020
                : 39
                : 4
                : 315-330
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                [4 ]Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
                [5 ]Division for Healthcare Technology Assessment Research, National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul, Korea
                [6 ]Department of Radiology, GangNeung Asan Hospital, Gangneung, Korea
                [7 ]Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Young Jun Choi, MD, PhD, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea Tel. +82-2-3010-4400 Fax. +82-2-476-0090 E-mail: jehee23@ 123456gmail.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                usg-20072
                10.14366/usg.20072
                7515666
                32892523
                Copyright © 2020 Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (KSUM)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                thyroid, doppler ultrasound

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