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      Congenital Complete Atrioventricular Heart Block in a Pregnant Woman with Sjögren Syndrome: Prenatal Care Follow-Up and the Challenge of Intrauterine Treatment Translated title: Bloqueio atrioventricular completo congênito em uma mulher grávida com síndrome de Sjögren: seguimento pré-natal e desafio do tratamento intrauterino

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          Abstract

          The present report describes a case of complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) diagnosed at 25 weeks of gestation in a pregnant woman with Sjögren's syndrome and positive anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. Fluorinated steroids (dexamethasone and betamethasone) and terbuline were used to increase the fetal heart rate, but the fetal heart block was not reversible, and the administration of drugs was discontinued due to maternal collateral effects. Follow-up fetal echocardiograms were performed, and the fetus evolved with pericardial effusion, presence of fibroelastosis in the right ventricle, and ventricular dysfunction. Interruption of pregnancy by cesarean section was indicated at 34 weeks of gestation, and a cardiac pacemaker was implanted in the male newborn immediately after birth. Therapy for fetuses with CAVB is controversial mainly regarding the use or not of corticosteroids; however, monitoring of the atrioventricular interval by fetal echocardiography should be performed in fetuses from pregnant women with positive autoantibodies anti-Ro/SSA and/or anti-La/SSB to prevent the progression to CAVB.

          Resumo

          Este relato descreve um caso de bloqueio atrioventricular completo (BAVC) diagnosticado com 25 semanas de gestação em uma mulher com síndrome de Sjögren e anticorpos anti-Ro/SSA positivos. Esteroides fluoretados (dexametasona e betametasona) e terbulina foram utilizados para aumentar a frequência cardíaca fetal, mas o bloqueio cardíaco fetal não foi reversível, e a administração dos medicamentos foi interrompida devido a efeitos colaterais maternos. Ecocardiogramas fetais de acompanhamento foram realizados, e o feto evoluiu com derrame pericárdico, presença de fibroelastose no ventrículo direito, e disfunção ventricular. A interrupção da gravidez por cesariana foi indicada com 34 semanas, e um marca-passo cardíaco foi implantado no recém-nascido do sexo masculino imediatamente após o nascimento. A terapia para fetos com BAVC é controversa, principalmente no que diz respeito ao uso ou não de corticosteroides; no entanto, o monitoramento do intervalo atrioventricular pela ecocardiografia fetal deve ser feito em fetos de mulheres grávidas com autoanticorpos positivos anti-Ro/SSA e/ou anti-La/SSB para impedir a progressão para o BAVC.

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          EULAR recommendations for women's health and the management of family planning, assisted reproduction, pregnancy and menopause in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and/or antiphospholipid syndrome

          Objectives Develop recommendations for women's health issues and family planning in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Methods Systematic review of evidence followed by modified Delphi method to compile questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Results Family planning should be discussed as early as possible after diagnosis. Most women can have successful pregnancies and measures can be taken to reduce the risks of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Risk stratification includes disease activity, autoantibody profile, previous vascular and pregnancy morbidity, hypertension and the use of drugs (emphasis on benefits from hydroxychloroquine and antiplatelets/anticoagulants). Hormonal contraception and menopause replacement therapy can be used in patients with stable/inactive disease and low risk of thrombosis. Fertility preservation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues should be considered prior to the use of alkylating agents. Assisted reproduction techniques can be safely used in patients with stable/inactive disease; patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies/APS should receive anticoagulation and/or low-dose aspirin. Assessment of disease activity, renal function and serological markers is important for diagnosing disease flares and monitoring for obstetrical adverse outcomes. Fetal monitoring includes Doppler ultrasonography and fetal biometry, particularly in the third trimester, to screen for placental insufficiency and small for gestational age fetuses. Screening for gynaecological malignancies is similar to the general population, with increased vigilance for cervical premalignant lesions if exposed to immunosuppressive drugs. Human papillomavirus immunisation can be used in women with stable/inactive disease. Conclusions Recommendations for women's health issues in SLE and/or APS were developed using an evidence-based approach followed by expert consensus.
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            Diagnosis and treatment of fetal cardiac disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

            The goal of this statement is to review available literature and to put forth a scientific statement on the current practice of fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis and management of fetal cardiovascular disease.
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              Isolated atrioventricular block in the fetus: a retrospective, multinational, multicenter study of 175 patients.

              Isolated complete atrioventricular block in the fetus is a rare but potentially lethal condition in which the effect of steroid treatment on outcome is unclear. The objective of this work was to study risk factors associated with death and the influence of steroid treatment on outcome. We studied 175 fetuses diagnosed with second- or third-degree atrioventricular block (2000-2007) retrospectively in a multinational, multicenter setting. In 80% of 162 pregnancies with documented antibody status, atrioventricular block was associated with maternal anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. Sixty-seven cases (38%) were treated with fluorinated corticosteroids for a median of 10 weeks (1-21 weeks). Ninety-one percent were alive at birth, and survival in the neonatal period was 93%, similar in steroid-treated and untreated fetuses, regardless of degree of block and/or presence of anti-Ro/SSA. Variables associated with death were gestational age < 20 weeks, ventricular rate ≤ 50 bpm, fetal hydrops, and impaired left ventricular function at diagnosis. The presence of ≥ 1 of these variables was associated with a 10-fold increase in mortality before birth and a 6-fold increase in the neonatal period independently of treatment. Except for a lower gestational age at diagnosis in treated than untreated (23.4 ± 2.9 versus 24.9 ± 4.9 weeks; P=0.02), risk factors were distributed equally between treatment groups. Two-thirds of survivors had a pacemaker by 1 year of age; 8 children developed cardiomyopathy. Risk factors associated with a poor outcome were gestation < 20 weeks, ventricular rate ≤ 50 bpm, hydrops, and impaired left ventricular function. No significant effect of treatment with fluorinated corticosteroids was seen.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
                Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
                10.1055/s-00030576
                RBGO Gynecology & Obstetrics
                Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil )
                0100-7203
                1806-9339
                April 2020
                1 April 2020
                : 42
                : 4
                : 228-232
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence Edward Araujo Júnior, PhD Rua Botucatu 740, 04023-062, Vila Clementino, São Paulo, SPBrazil araujojred@ 123456terra.com.br
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6138-8182
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1491-4877
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6145-2532
                Article
                190310
                10.1055/s-0040-1709738
                10316871
                32330965
                d04487d6-0ca2-42c1-bb65-89be0ad3c590

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 07 November 2019
                : 09 March 2020
                Categories
                Case Report

                complete congenital heart block,maternal autoantibodies,prenatal diagnosis,prevention,intrauterine treatment,bloqueio cardíaco congênito completo,autoanticorpos maternos,diagnóstico pré-natal,prevenção,tratamento intrauterino

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