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      Treatment of restless legs syndrome: Evidence-based review and implications for clinical practice (Revised 2017)§ : Treatment of RLS

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          Systematic Reviews: Identifying relevant studies for systematic reviews

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            Publication bias: evidence of delayed publication in a cohort study of clinical research projects.

            To determine the extent to which publication is influenced by study outcome. A cohort of studies submitted to a hospital ethics committee over 10 years were examined retrospectively by reviewing the protocols and by questionnaire. The primary method of analysis was Cox's proportional hazards model. University hospital, Sydney, Australia. 748 eligible studies submitted to Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Ethics Committee between 1979 and 1988. Time to publication. Response to the questionnaire was received for 520 (70%) of the eligible studies. Of the 218 studies analysed with tests of significance, those with positive results (P or = 0.10) (hazard ratio 2.32 (95% confidence interval 1.47 to 3.66), P = 0.0003), with a significantly shorter time to publication (median 4.8 v 8.0 years). This finding was even stronger for the group of 130 clinical trials (hazard ratio 3.13 (1.76 to 5.58). P = 0.0001), with median times to publication of 4.7 and 8.0 years respectively. These results were not materially changed after adjusting for other significant predictors of publication. Studies with indefinite conclusions (0.05 < or = P < 0.10) tended to have an even lower publication rate and longer time to publication than studies with negative results (hazard ratio 0.39 (0.13 to 1.12), P = 0.08). For the 103 studies in which outcome was rated qualitatively, there was no clear cut evidence of publication bias, although the number of studies in this group was not large. This study confirms the evidence of publication bias found in other studies and identifies delay in publication as an additional important factor. The study results support the need for prospective registration of trials to avoid publication bias and also support restricting the selection of trials to those started before a common date in undertaking systematic reviews.
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              Selecting the language of the publications included in a meta-analysis: Is there a tower of babel bias?


                Author and article information

                Movement Disorders
                Mov Disord.
                July 2018
                July 2018
                May 14 2018
                : 33
                : 7
                : 1077-1091
                [1 ]Institute of Neurogenomics; Helmholtz Zentrum München; Munich Germany
                [2 ]Department of Neurology and Department of Human Genetics; Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University; Munich Germany
                [3 ]Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy); Munich Germany
                [4 ]Sleep Disorders Center; Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center; Baltimore Maryland USA
                [5 ]Department of Neurology; Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore Maryland USA
                [6 ]Department of Neurology; Medical University of Innsbruck; Innsbruck Austria
                [7 ]Japan Somnology Center; Neuropsychiatric Research Institute; Tokyo Japan
                [8 ]Department of Somnology; Tokyo Medical University; Tokyo Japan
                [9 ]Department of Neurology; Philipps-Universität Marburg; Marburg Germany
                [10 ]Harvard Medical School; Boston Massachusetts USA
                [11 ]Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology; Massachusetts General Hospital; Boston Massachusetts USA
                [12 ]Department of Neurosurgery; University Medical Center; Goettingen Germany
                [13 ]Paracelsus-Elena Hospital; Kassel Germany
                [14 ]CHDI Foundation, Princeton, Princeton, NJ, USA, and the Instituto de Medicina Molecular; University of Lisbon; Lisbon Portugal
                © 2018


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