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      The invasion, provenance and diversity of Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Great Britain

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          Abstract

          The yellow-legged or Asian hornet ( Vespa velutina colour form nigrithorax) was introduced into France from China over a decade ago. Vespa velutina has since spread rapidly across Europe, facilitated by suitable climatic conditions and the ability of a single nest to disperse many mated queens over a large area. Yellow-legged hornets are a major concern because of the potential impact they have on populations of many beneficial pollinators, most notably the western honey bee ( Apis mellifera), which shows no effective defensive behaviours against this exotic predator. Here, we present the first report of this species in Great Britain. Actively foraging hornets were detected at two locations, the first around a single nest in Gloucestershire, and the second a single hornet trapped 54 km away in Somerset. The foraging activity observed in Gloucestershire was largely restricted to within 700 m of a single nest, suggesting highly localised movements. Genetic analyses of individuals from the Gloucestershire nest and the single hornet from Somerset suggest that these incursions represent an expansion of the European population, rather than a second incursion from Asia. The founding queen of the Gloucestershire nest mated with a single male, suggesting that sexual reproduction may have occurred in an area of low nest density. Whilst the nest contained diploid adult males, haploid ‘true’ males were only present at the egg stage, indicating that the nest was detected and removed before the production of queens. Members of the public reported additional dead hornets associated with camping equipment recently returned from France and imported timber products, highlighting possible pathways of incursion. The utility of microsatellites to inform surveillance during an incursion and the challenge of achieving eradication of this damaging pest are discussed.

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          DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera.

          Although central to much biological research, the identification of species is often difficult. The use of DNA barcodes, short DNA sequences from a standardized region of the genome, has recently been proposed as a tool to facilitate species identification and discovery. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identifying specimens in species-rich tropical biotas is unknown. Here we show that cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcodes effectively discriminate among species in three Lepidoptera families from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. We found that 97.9% of the 521 species recognized by prior taxonomic work possess distinctive cytochrome c oxidase I barcodes and that the few instances of interspecific sequence overlap involve very similar species. We also found two or more barcode clusters within each of 13 supposedly single species. Covariation between these clusters and morphological and/or ecological traits indicates overlooked species complexes. If these results are general, DNA barcoding will significantly aid species identification and discovery in tropical settings.
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            Ecological effects and management of invasive alien Vespidae

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              Caste differentiation and seasonal changes inVespa velutina(Hym.: Vespidae) colonies in its introduced range

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curation
                Role: Data curation
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curation
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                26 September 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Fera, The National Agrifood Innovation Campus, Sand Hutton, York, United Kingdom
                [2 ] Institute for Agri-Food Research and Innovation, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
                [3 ] National Bee Unit, Animal and Plant Health Agency, The National Agrifood Innovation Campus, Sand Hutton, York, United Kingdom
                University of Cologne, GERMANY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-23878
                10.1371/journal.pone.0185172
                5614577
                28950004
                © 2017 Budge et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000277, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs;
                Award ID: PH0533
                Award Recipient :
                This work was funded with the support of the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra; project number PH0533) and the Welsh Government. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                Europe
                European Union
                United Kingdom
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Foraging
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Behavior
                Foraging
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Database and Informatics Methods
                Bioinformatics
                Sequence Analysis
                Sequence Alignment
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Molecular Biology
                Molecular Biology Techniques
                Artificial Gene Amplification and Extension
                Polymerase Chain Reaction
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Molecular Biology Techniques
                Artificial Gene Amplification and Extension
                Polymerase Chain Reaction
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                Europe
                European Union
                France
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Gene Types
                Microsatellite Loci
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Hymenoptera
                Bees
                Honey Bees
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Species Colonization
                Invasive Species
                Custom metadata
                Raw data are provided in the Supporting Information file.

                Uncategorized

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