In a community cohort of 833 women and men aged <60 years, employed at the time of a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the relation of sociodemographic, vocational, and medical variables to the following three aspects of employment was investigated longitudinally: resumption of employment anytime within 5 years after AMI, resumption of employment within 3 months of the AMI, and maintenance of employment 5 years after AMI. Different sets of characteristics of persons with a first AMI were related to the different criteria of employment. Only sociodemographic and vocational variables were related to early resumption of employment, whereas maintenance of employment 5 years after AMI was influenced by both medical and nonmedical variables. These results support the importance of examining different aspects of resumption and maintenance of employment after AMI. They also suggest that early resumption of employment after AMI and employment anytime 5 years after AMI are more a function of the sociodemographic and vocational characteristics of the person with the AMI than of that person’s medical condition, whereas long-term maintenance of employment after an AMI is also related to the person’s medical condition.