Inflammation is the keystone in the disease’s pathological process in response to any damaging stimuli. Therefore, any agent that inhibits the inflammatory response is under focus, either a drug or a bioactive compound. Selenium nanoparticles have drawn attention in various biomedical applications, including the anti-inflammatory activity.
In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the capacity of different surface coating materials (soybean lecithin, PEG 6000, and β-cyclodextrin) to enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of the synthesized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). The capability of the coated SeNPs to adsorb indomethacin (IND) on their surfaces compared to the uncoated SeNPs was also evaluated.
SeNPs were synthesized, coated with different materials, and characterized in vitro using X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and particle size and zeta potential measurements. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the uncoated/coated SeNPs loaded into hydrogel was evaluated using a carrageenan-induced paw edema rat model. The effect of SeNPs surface coatings was further evaluated for IND loading capacity.
Our findings proved the superior anti-inflammatory activity of all coated SeNPs compared to the uncoated SeNPs, especially with β-cyclodextrin surface coating. Regarding the IND loading capacity of the prepared uncoated/coated SeNPs, the amount of drug loaded was 0.12, 1.12, 0.3, and 0.14 µg IND/µg SeNPs for the uncoated, lecithin-, PEG- and β-CD-coated SeNPs, respectively.