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Cutaneous Angioleiomyoma – A Rare Cause of Posterior Heel Pain: A Case Report

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      Abstract

      Heel pain is a common presentation in outpatient clinics. Here, we report a 69-year-old woman who complaint about a painful nodule on her left posterior heel. There was no history of trauma. The lesion developed during ten weeks without any bleeding or ulceration. On examination, we observed a subcutaneous firm nodule of about 1 cm in diameter. The lesion was hypoechoic in diagnostic sonography suggesting a fibromatous tumour, which was removed surgically. Histologic investigations confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous angioleiomyoma. The occurrence of this benign tumour on the heel is quite uncommon but obvious a possible cause for heel pain. During follow-up, no recurrence was observed.

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      Diagnosis of heel pain.

      Heel pain is a common presenting symptom in ambulatory clinics. There are many causes, but a mechanical etiology is most common. Location of pain can be a guide to the proper diagnosis. The most common diagnosis is plantar fasciitis, a condition that leads to medial plantar heel pain, especially with the first weight-bearing steps in the morning and after long periods of rest. Other causes of plantar heel pain include calcaneal stress fracture (progressively worsening pain following an increase in activity level or change to a harder walking surface), nerve entrapment (pain accompanied by burning, tingling, or numbness), heel pad syndrome (deep, bruise-like pain in the middle of the heel), neuromas, and plantar warts. Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition that causes posterior heel pain. Other tendinopathies demonstrate pain localized to the insertion site of the affected tendon. Posterior heel pain can also be attributed to a Haglund deformity, a prominence of the calcaneus that may cause bursa inflammation between the calcaneus and Achilles tendon, or to Sever disease, a calcaneal apophysitis in children. Medial midfoot heel pain, particularly with continued weight bearing, may be due to tarsal tunnel syndrome, which is caused by compression of the posterior tibial nerve as it courses through the flexor retinaculum, medial calcaneus, posterior talus, and medial malleolus. Sinus tarsi syndrome occurs in the space between the calcaneus, talus, and talocalcaneonavicular and subtalar joints. The syndrome manifests as lateral midfoot heel pain. Differentiating among causes of heel pain can be accomplished through a patient history and physical examination, with appropriate imaging studies, if indicated.
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        Subcutaneous Angioleiomyoma: Clinical and Sonographic Features With Histopathologic Correlation.

        To investigate clinical and sonographic features of subcutaneous angioleiomyoma with histopathologic correlation.
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          Recurrent Somatic PDGFRB Mutations in Sporadic Infantile/Solitary Adult Myofibromas But Not in Angioleiomyomas and Myopericytomas.

          Infantile myofibroma (MF) is an uncommon benign myofibroblastic tumor of infancy and childhood. Solitary adult MF shares similar features with infantile MF. The lesions occur in 3 clinicopathologic settings: solitary, multicentric, and generalized and can be either sporadic or familial. Traditionally, infantile MF has been included in the spectrum of infantile hemangiopericytoma. The recent World Health Organization classification listed MF, angioleiomyoma, and myopericytoma under the general heading of perivascular tumors in the sense of a morphologic spectrum of perivascular myoid cell neoplasms. Although activating germline PDGFRB mutations have recently been linked to familial infantile MF, the molecular pathogenesis of sporadic infantile and adult solitary MF remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed 25 solitary MFs without evidence of familial disease (9 infantile and 16 adult MFs) to address the question whether somatic PDGFRB mutations might be responsible for the sporadic form of the disease. Given the presumed histogenetic link of MF to myopericytoma and angioleiomyoma, we additionally analyzed a control group of 6 myopericytomas and 9 angioleiomyomas for PDGFRB mutations. We detected PDGFRB mutations in 6/8 (75%) analyzable infantile and in 11/16 (69%) adult MFs but in none of the angioleiomyomas or myopericytomas. In 2 infantile MFs, additional sequencing of the germline confirmed the somatic nature of PDGFRB mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting apparently somatic recurrent PDGFRB mutations as molecular driver events in the majority of sporadic infantile and adult solitary MFs. Our results suggest molecular distinctness of MF as compared with angioleiomyoma/myopericytoma. Investigation of more cases including those with atypical and worrisome features, as well as other mimickers in the heterogenous morphologic spectrum of MF, is mandatory for validating the potential diagnostic value of PDGFRB mutation testing as a possible surrogate in difficult-to-classify lesions.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden, 01067 Dresden, Germany
            [2 ] Institute of Pathology “Georg Schmorl”, Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden, 01067 Dresden, Germany
            [3 ] Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior, and Onkoderma Policlinic for Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Sofia, Bulgaria
            [4 ] University of Rome G. Marconi, Rome, Italy
            Author notes
            [* ] Correspondence: Uwe Wollina. Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Friedrichstr. 41, 01067 Dresden, Germany. E-mail: wollina-uw@ 123456khdf.de
            Journal
            Open Access Maced J Med Sci
            Open Access Maced J Med Sci
            Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
            ID Design 2012/DOOEL Skopje (Republic of Macedonia )
            1857-9655
            25 July 2017
            19 July 2017
            : 5
            : 4
            : 436-438
            5535651
            OAMJMS-5-436
            10.3889/oamjms.2017.110
            Copyright: © 2017 Uwe Wollina, Jacqueline Schönlebe, Georgi Tchernev, Serena Gianfaldoni, Torello Lotti.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).

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