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      Genotyping and zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cattle farmed in Hainan Province, the southernmost region of China Translated title: Génotypage et potentiel zoonotique d’ Enterocytozoon bieneusi chez les bovins élevés dans la province de Hainan, la région la plus au sud de la Chine

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          Abstract

          Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an intestinal pathogen that infects a wide range of species, including humans. Cattle constitute an important host for E. bieneusi; however, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence and genotyping of E. bieneusi in cattle in the Hainan Province of China. In this study, PCR analysis of 314 fecal samples from cattle in six cities of Hainan was performed for genotype identification. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi in these animals was 9.9% (31/314), and ranged from 0.0% (0/12) to 20.5% (8/39). Five known genotypes – EbpC ( n = 14), BEB4 ( n = 12), J ( n = 2), I ( n = 1), and CHG5 ( n = 1) – and a novel genotype: HNC-I ( n = 1) – were identified. Genotypes EbpC and HNC-I were placed in zoonotic Group 1, and the remaining four genotypes (BEB4, J, I, and CHG5) were placed in Group 2. Since 93.5% of the genotypes found in the cattle (29/31) (EbpC, BEB4, J, and I) have previously been found in humans, these genotypes are probably involved in the transmission of microsporidiosis to humans.

          Translated abstract

          Enterocytozoon bieneusi est un pathogène intestinal qui infecte un large éventail d’espèces, y compris les humains. Le bétail constitue un hôte important pour E. bieneusi, mais les informations sur la prévalence et le génotypage d’ E. bieneusi chez les bovins de la province de Hainan en Chine sont rares. Dans cette étude, une analyse PCR de 314 échantillons fécaux provenant de bovins dans six villes de Hainan a été réalisée pour l’identification du génotype. La prévalence moyenne d’ E. bieneusi chez ces animaux était de 9,9 % (31/314), et variait de 0,0 % (0/12) à 20,5 % (8/39). Cinq génotypes connus, EbpC ( n = 14), BEB4 ( n = 12), J ( n = 2), I ( n = 1) et CHG5 ( n = 1), et un nouveau génotype, HNC-I ( n = 1), ont été identifiés. Les génotypes EbpC et HNC-I sont placés dans le groupe zoonotique 1, et les quatre génotypes restants (BEB4, J, I et CHG5) sont placés dans le groupe 2. Puisque 93,5 % (29/31) (EbpC, BEB4, J et I) des génotypes trouvés chez les bovins ont déjà été trouvés chez l’homme, ces génotypes sont probablement impliqués dans la transmission de la microsporidiose à l’homme.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy.

          Molecular diagnostic tools have been used increasingly in the characterization of the transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in developing countries. However, few studies have examined the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. In the present study, 683 HIV-positive patients in the National Free Antiretroviral Therapy Program in China and 683 matched HIV-negative controls were enrolled. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes were detected and differentiated by PCR and DNA sequencing. The infection rates were 1.5% and 0.15% for Cryptosporidium and 5.7% and 4.2% for E. bieneusi in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively. The majority (8/11) of Cryptosporidium cases were infections by zoonotic species, including Cryptosporidium meleagridis (5), Cryptosporidium parvum (2), and Cryptosporidium suis (1). Prevalent E. bieneusi genotypes detected, including EbpC (39), D (12), and type IV (7), were also potentially zoonotic. The common occurrence of EbpC was a feature of E. bieneusi transmission not seen in other areas. Contact with animals was a risk factor for both cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. The results suggest that zoonotic transmission was significant in the epidemiology of both diseases in rural AIDS patients in China.
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            Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans

            A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives.
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              Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype nomenclature based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence: a consensus.

              The standard method for determining the genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi is based on the DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. There are 81 genotypes with 111 genotype names: 26 genotypes have been identified exclusively in humans, eight have been identified in humans and in other hosts, 27 have been identified exclusively in cattle and pigs, six have been identified exclusively in cats and dogs, and 14 have been identified in miscellaneous hosts. Because none of these genotypes has taxonomic status and therefore do not adhere to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature regarding naming, some genotypes have received multiple names, each different and in separate publications by different authors. Because of the proliferation of genotypes with overlapping names and multiple hosts the scientific literature has become confusing and difficult to efficiently utilize. To reduce confusion and provide guidance for future publications we tabulated all names, GenBank accession numbers, and author citations and propose that the first published name has precedence and should become the primary name used in all subsequent publications in which genotyping is based on ITS sequencing. In those publications the names and GenBank numbers that were submitted at later dates should also be provided by the authors as synonyms to aid readers and reviewers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                24 November 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Hainan Academy of Agricultural Sciences 571100 Haikou PR China
                [2 ] Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Hainan Medical University 571199 Haikou PR China
                [3 ] Department of Pathogenic Biology, Hainan Medical University 571199 Haikou Hainan PR China
                [4 ] Hainan Medical University-The University of Hong Kong Joint Laboratory of Tropical Infectious Diseases, Hainan Medical University 571199 Haikou Hainan PR China
                Author notes
                [a]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                parasite200165 10.1051/parasite/2020065
                10.1051/parasite/2020065
                7685235
                33231548
                © X.-L. Zheng et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 54, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Article

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