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      The Prevalence of Human Bocavirus, Human Coronavirus-NL63, Human Metapneumovirus, Human Polyomavirus KI and WU in Respiratory Tract Infections in Kuwait

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          Abstract

          Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), human bocavirus (Boca), human polyomavirus KI (KIV) and human polyomavirus WU (WUV) in respiratory tract infections (RTI) in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Respiratory samples from 735 hospitalized patients with RTI from September 2010 to April 2013 were evaluated for the presence of HCoV-NL63, hMPV, Boca, KIV and WUV using molecular assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcription PCR. Results: Of the 735 patients, 285 (38.8%) were diagnosed with viral RTI. The distribution of respiratory viruses was hMPV: 15 (5.3%), Boca: 14 (4.9%), WUV: 10 (3.5%) and KIV: 4 (1.4%). HCoV-NL63 was not detected in any of the samples. Conclusions: These newly discovered viruses were associated with the development of RTI in Kuwait. The rapid identification of these viral infections could aid in the control of nosocomial transmission, reduce the use of antibiotics and improve treatment and management strategies.

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          Most cited references 27

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          A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease

          From 28 young children in the Netherlands, we isolated a paramyxovirus that was identified as a tentative new member of the Metapneumovirus genus based on virological data, sequence homology and gene constellation. Previously, avian pneumovirus was the sole member of this recently assigned genus, hence the provisional name for the newly discovered virus: human metapneumovirus. The clinical symptoms of the children from whom the virus was isolated were similar to those caused by human respiratory syncytial virus infection, ranging from upper respiratory tract disease to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Serological studies showed that by the age of five years, virtually all children in the Netherlands have been exposed to human metapneumovirus and that the virus has been circulating in humans for at least 50 years.
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            Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples.

            The identification of new virus species is a key issue for the study of infectious disease but is technically very difficult. We developed a system for large-scale molecular virus screening of clinical samples based on host DNA depletion, random PCR amplification, large-scale sequencing, and bioinformatics. The technology was applied to pooled human respiratory tract samples. The first experiments detected seven human virus species without the use of any specific reagent. Among the detected viruses were one coronavirus and one parvovirus, both of which were at that time uncharacterized. The parvovirus, provisionally named human bocavirus, was in a retrospective clinical study detected in 17 additional patients and associated with lower respiratory tract infections in children. The molecular virus screening procedure provides a general culture-independent solution to the problem of detecting unknown virus species in single or pooled samples. We suggest that a systematic exploration of the viruses that infect humans, "the human virome," can be initiated.
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              Human metapneumovirus and lower respiratory tract disease in otherwise healthy infants and children.

              We sought to determine the role of human metapneumovirus in lower respiratory tract illness in previously healthy infants and children. We tested nasal-wash specimens, obtained over a 25-year period from otherwise healthy children presenting with acute respiratory tract illness, for human metapneumovirus. A viral cause other than human metapneumovirus was determined for 279 of 687 visits for acute lower respiratory tract illness (41 percent) by 463 children in a population of 2009 infants and children prospectively seen from 1976 to 2001. There were 408 visits for lower respiratory tract illness by 321 children for which no cause was identified. Of these 321 children, specimens from 248 were available. Forty-nine of these 248 specimens (20 percent) contained human metapneumovirus RNA or viable virus. Thus, 20 percent of all previously virus-negative lower respiratory tract illnesses were attributable to human metapneumovirus, which means that 12 percent of all lower respiratory tract illnesses in this cohort were most likely due to this virus. The mean age of human metapneumovirus-infected children was 11.6 months, the male:female ratio was 1.8:1, 78 percent of illnesses occurred between December and April, and the hospitalization rate was 2 percent. The virus was associated with bronchiolitis in 59 percent of cases, pneumonia in 8 percent, croup in 18 percent, and an exacerbation of asthma in 14 percent. We also detected human metapneumovirus in 15 percent of samples from 261 patients with upper respiratory tract infection but in only 1 of 86 samples from asymptomatic children. Human metapneumovirus infection is a leading cause of respiratory tract infection in the first years of life, with a spectrum of disease similar to that of respiratory syncytial virus. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MPP
                MPP
                Med Princ Pract
                10.1159/issn.1011-7571
                Medical Principles and Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1011-7571
                1423-0151
                2015
                June 2015
                24 April 2015
                : 24
                : 4
                : 382-387
                Affiliations
                Departments of aMicrobiology, bPediatrics and cMedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait
                Author notes
                *Dr. Sahar Sultan Essa, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923, Safat 13110 (Kuwait), E-Mail sahar@hsc.edu.kw
                Article
                381422 Med Princ Pract 2015;24:382-387
                10.1159/000381422
                5588235
                25925246
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 30, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/381422
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/Tap/Home/278492
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