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      Effects of Bu Shen Yi Sui Capsule on Th17/Treg cytokines in C57BL/6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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          Abstract

          Background

          T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease. Bu Shen Yi Sui Capsule (BSYSC), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used clinically for the treatment of MS patients in China.

          Methods

          To evaluate the neuroprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms of BSYSC on MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in C57BL/6 mice was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35–55. Th17 and Treg cells and the related cytokines were detected by flow cytometry, ELISA, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry.

          Results

          We found that BSYSC improved neurological function, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and damage to the axons and myelin in the brain and spinal cord. BSYSC down-regulated markedly the ratio of CD4 + IL-17+/CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ T cells in the spleen, decreased the cytokines of IL-17A, IL-6, IL-23, TGF-beta1 in the brain, and dropped the ratio of IL-17A and FoxP3 mRNA and protein in the brain or spinal cord at different stages.

          Conclusions

          The study demonstrated that BSYSC had a strong neuroprotective effect on EAE mice. The protective mechanisms of BSYSC might be associated with mediating the regulation of Th17/Treg cells.

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          Most cited references56

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          A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17.

          Interleukin 17 (IL-17) has been linked to autoimmune diseases, although its regulation and function have remained unclear. Here we have evaluated in vitro and in vivo the requirements for the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into effector T helper cells that produce IL-17. This process required the costimulatory molecules CD28 and ICOS but was independent of the cytokines and transcription factors required for T helper type 1 or type 2 differentiation. Furthermore, both IL-4 and interferon-gamma negatively regulated T helper cell production of IL-17 in the effector phase. In vivo, antibody to IL-17 inhibited chemokine expression in the brain during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas overexpression of IL-17 in lung epithelium caused chemokine production and leukocyte infiltration. Thus, IL-17 expression characterizes a unique T helper lineage that regulates tissue inflammation.
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            T helper 17 lineage differentiation is programmed by orphan nuclear receptors ROR alpha and ROR gamma.

            T cell functional differentiation is mediated by lineage-specific transcription factors. T helper 17 (Th17) has been recently identified as a distinct Th lineage mediating tissue inflammation. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR gamma) was shown to regulate Th17 differentiation; ROR gamma deficiency, however, did not completely abolish Th17 cytokine expression. Here, we report Th17 cells highly expressed another related nuclear receptor, ROR alpha, induced by transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is dependent on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Overexpression of ROR alpha promoted Th17 differentiation, possibly through the conserved noncoding sequence 2 in Il17-Il17f locus. ROR alpha deficiency resulted in reduced IL-17 expression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ROR alpha and ROR gamma coexpression synergistically led to greater Th17 differentiation. Double deficiencies in ROR alpha and ROR gamma globally impaired Th17 generation and completely protected mice against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, Th17 differentiation is directed by two lineage-specific nuclear receptors, ROR alpha and ROR gamma.
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              The plasticity of human Treg and Th17 cells and its role in autoimmunity.

              CD4(+) T helper cells are a central element of the adaptive immune system. They protect the organism against a wide range of pathogens and are able to initiate and control many immune reactions in combination with other cells of the adaptive and the innate immune system. Starting from a naive cell, CD4(+) T cells can differentiate into various effector cell populations with specialized function. This subset specific differentiation depends on numerous signals and the strength of stimulation. However, recent data have shown that differentiated CD4(+) T cell subpopulations display a high grade of plasticity and that their initial differentiation is not an endpoint of T cell development. In particular, FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 effector T cells demonstrate a high grade of plasticity, which allow a functional adaptation to various physiological situations during an immune response. However, the plasticity of Treg and Th17 cells might also be a critical factor for autoimmune disease. Here we discuss the recent developments in CD4(+) T cell plasticity with a focus on Treg and Th17 cells and its role in human autoimmune disease, in particular multiple sclerosis (MS). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                fiona19880607@sina.cn
                yangtaosun2001@163.com
                fangling0113@163.com
                15652523423@163.com
                793146134@qq.com
                zhaohui8957@sina.com
                zhaoyiyi410@163.com
                guohz@bidc.org.cn
                yongpingf@hotmail.com
                tmwangl@ccmu.edu.cn
                Journal
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1472-6882
                12 March 2015
                12 March 2015
                2015
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [ ]School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069 PR China
                [ ]Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050 PR China
                [ ]Beijing Institute for Drug Control, Beijing, 100035 PR China
                Article
                572
                10.1186/s12906-015-0572-0
                4369831
                25783928
                d0785309-d88d-4e7e-98f2-d76fba597b06
                © Zheng et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,multiple sclerosis,bu shen yi sui capsules,th17,treg,interleukin-17a,fork head box p3

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