Among adults in Western countries, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent form of leukemia. CLL primarily affects the elderly and may be associated with multiple comorbidities. A cure has not been identified, and new treatment options are needed. Expression of Bcl-2 protein is associated with the pathogenesis of CLL and chemotherapy resistance. Oblimersen, a Bcl-2 antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, is being evaluated in patients with CLL and other cancers; trials through Phase III have been completed. In the setting of relapsed/refractory CLL, single-agent oblimersen demonstrates modest activity, whereas the addition of oblimersen to fludarabine/cyclophosphamide significantly improves the rate of complete and nodular partial responses; moreover, these responses are durable and associated with clinical benefit. Oblimersen is more efficacious in relapsed rather than refractory patients. The side effect profile of oblimersen, alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy, is favorable compared with currently available chemotherapies. In the first cycle, an infusion reaction with or without tumor lysis syndrome is uncommon, and transient thrombocytopenia is observed. Catheter-related complications are associated with the need for continuous intravenous infusion of oblimersen over several days; other routes of administration are under clinical investigation. Oblimersen is a promising therapeutic approach for patients with relapsed CLL and should be further evaluated in the front-line setting.