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Ultrasonographic evaluation of tracheal collapse in dogs

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      Tracheal ultrasonography was performed to measure the width of the tracheal ring shadow and to assess the clinical relevance of these measurements for identifying tracheal collapse. The first tracheal ring width (FTRW) and thoracic inlet tracheal ring width (TITRW) were measured on both expiration and inspiration. The mean of the FTRW width (129 dogs) was greater in expiration (10.97 ± 1.02 mm, p = 0.001) than that in inspiration (9.86 ± 1.03 mm). For 51 normal dogs, the mean of the TITRW width was greater in expiration (9.05 ± 1.52 mm, p = 0.001) than in inspiration (8.02 ± 1.43 mm). For 78 tracheal collapse dogs, the mean of the TITRW width was greater in expiration (15.89 ± 1.01 mm, p = 0.001) than in inspiration (14.85 ± 1.17 mm). The TITRW/FTRW ratio of the normal dogs was higher (p = 0.001) in expiration (0.81 ± 0.09) than that in inspiration (0.79 ± 0.10). When compared between the normal and tracheal collapse dogs, the TITRW/FTRW ratio was also increased (p = 0.001) both in expiration (1.54 ± 0.09) and inspiration (1.47 ± 0.08), respectively. Based on these results, the cutoff level of the TITRW/FTRW ratio was statistically analyzed according to the receiver operating characteristic curve and it could be set at 1.16 in expiration and at 1.13 in inspiration. We have demonstrated that tracheal ultrasonography is a useful technique for the evaluation of tracheal collapse and it can be a supportive tool together with the radiographic findings for making the correct diagnosis.

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      Most cited references 23

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      Results of surgical correction of abnormalities associated with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in dogs in Australia.

      To describe clinical features of brachycephalic airway obstructive disease in dogs, the incidence of laryngeal collapse in dogs presenting for surgery and the outcome after surgery in dogs with laryngeal collapse. Basic clinical details were reviewed retrospectively in 73 dogs. Presence of laryngeal collapse and short-term outcomes after surgery were determined for 64 dogs with complete medical records. Long-term outcomes were reviewed for 46 dogs by telephone survey between 19 and 77 months following surgery. Stenotic nares were present in 31 dogs (42.5 per cent), elongated soft palate in 63 (86.3 per cent) and everted laryngeal saccules in 43 (58.9 per cent). The most common breeds were the pug (19 dogs, 26 per cent), Cavalier King Charles spaniel (15 dogs, 20.5 per cent), British bulldog (14 dogs, 19.2 per cent) and Staffordshire bull terrier (4 dogs, 5.5 per cent). Laryngeal collapse was present in 34 of 64 (53 per cent) dogs. No dogs died perioperatively and only one dog was euthanased as a result of its respiratory disease three years after surgery. Telephone interviews indicated that 26 dogs (56.5 per cent) were much improved after surgery, 15 (32.6 per cent) had some improvement and 5 (10.9 per cent) showed no improvement. Signs that persisted after surgery were snoring during sleep (34 dogs, 73.9 per cent), stertor/stridor while conscious (23 dogs, 50 per cent), excessive panting (13 dogs, 28.3 per cent) and dyspnoea (10 dogs, 21.7 per cent). Long-term outcome was considered good, even in dogs with laryngeal collapse. Laryngeal collapse is relatively common in dogs presented for surgical correction of brachycephalic airway obstructive disease. Dogs with severe laryngeal collapse often respond well to surgery. Clinical signs rarely resolve completely following surgery.
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        A quantitative study on the trachea of the dog.

         M Ocal,  M Kara,  I Dabanoğlu (2001)
        This study was carried out to record the detailed morphometric structure of the trachea in dogs using 15 female and four male healthy adult mongrel dogs. The diameter and thickness of each tracheal ring were measured, the number of tracheal rings varying from 36 to 45. All data were subjected to statistical analysis which was carried out on individual sections of the trachea, i.e. the cranial cervical, middle cervical, thoracic inlet and the intrathoracic tracheal regions, which consisted of 12, 12, nine and 12 tracheal rings, respectively. Fusion of the tracheal rings was especially obvious in the cranial cervical and thoracic inlet regions as a result of neck movements. The diameter and thickness of the tracheal rings are smallest at the thoracic inlet level because the direction of the trachea changes at this point where the thoracic inlet is relatively small and surrounded by bone. The ratios of inner transverse to inner vertical and outer transverse to outer vertical diameters were almost the same, between 1.14 and 1.25 in all regions, which indicated that the trachea is near-circular in shape in the dog. At the thoracic inlet level cross-sectional lumen areas are 7 and 6% smaller than those in the middle cervical and intrathoracic regions, respectively. The thinnest cartilage was seen at the thoracic inlet level where there is a risk of tracheal collapse.
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          Surgical treatment of tracheal collapse in dogs: 90 cases (1983-1993).

           H Hobson,  J Buback,  H Boothe (1996)
          To determine factors associated with long-term outcome in dogs with tracheal collapse treated with extraluminal polypropylene C-shaped stents. Retrospective case series. 90 dogs. Medical records of dogs with surgically treated tracheal collapse were reviewed. Follow-up was obtained either by recheck at the veterinary teaching hospital only (n = 10) or by telephone interviews with referring veterinarians and owners (n = 35), referring veterinarians alone (n = 23), or owners alone (n = 16). The chi 2 test was used to determine which factors were associated with long-term outcome. 11 breeds were represented. Yorkshire Terriers, Poodles, and Pomeranians were most common. Median age at the time of surgery was 6.8 years. Median weight was 2.9 kg. Severity of collapse ranged from grade II to grade IV. Dogs or = 6 years old. Dogs > or = years old had more postoperative complications and a poorer longterm outcome than did dogs or = 6 years old.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea.
            [2 ]Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea.
            [3 ]Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea.
            [4 ]Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea.
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Tel: +82-53-950-5965; Fax: +82-53-950-5955, khojang@
            J Vet Sci
            Journal of Veterinary Science
            The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
            December 2008
            31 December 2008
            : 9
            : 4
            : 401-405
            Copyright © 2008 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
            Original Article

            Veterinary medicine

            tracheal ultrasonography, dog, tracheal ring, tracheal collapse


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