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Phytochemical Characterization of Terminalia catappa Linn. Extracts and Their antifungal Activities against Candida spp.

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      Abstract

      Terminalia catappa Linn bark is used to treat dysentery by various populations in Southeast Asian countries, and its leaves have also been used in traditional medicine to treat hepatitis in India and the Philippines. Here, the antifungal actions of crude hydro-alcoholic extract (TcHE) and fractions from T. catappa leaves were assessed via the agar diffusion and microdilution tests on Candida reference strains and clinical isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Additionally, the potential cytotoxic effects of TcHE were assessed on cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). T. catappa fractions and sub-fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact (GC/MS/EI), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry “electrospray” ionization in positive mode (HPLC/MS/MS/ESI +) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1HNMR). TcHE and its fractions were able to inhibit the growth of all tested Candida strains with the n-butanol (FBuOH) fraction presenting the best antifungal activity. Testing of different FBuOH sub-fractions (SF) showed that SF10 was the most active against Candida spp. Fractioning of SF10 demonstrated that 5 out of its 15 sub-fractions were active against Candida spp., with SF10.5 presenting the highest activity. Chemical analysis of SF10 detected hydrolysable tannins (punicalin, punicalagin), gallic acid and flavonoid C-glycosides. Overall, the results showed that T. catappa L. leaf extract, fractions and sub-fractions were antifungal against Candida spp. and may be useful to treat diseases caused by this fungus.

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      Most cited references 39

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      Systematics and health effects of chemically distinct tannins in medicinal plants.

       Darin Okuda (2005)
      The research began with an investigation of tannins from traditional medicinal plants and resulted in isolation and structure determination of hundreds of ellagitannins and dehydroellagitannins, as well as their oligomers and oxidized derivatives with various structures specific to each plant species. These polyphenols have been classified according to the stage of oxidative structural transformation and oligomerization, into types I-IV and I+ to IV+, etc. Parallels were found between their oxidative transformations and plant evolution. They were also classified by the linkage units between the monomers, into DOG, GOD, GOG and DOGOD types (D=Diphenoyl, G=Galloyl, O=Oxygen), etc. Besides their fundamental activities, e.g., reduction and anti-peroxidation properties, remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of various potencies have also been found, including, amongst others, inhibition of lipid-peroxidation, mutagenicity of carcinogens and tumor promotion, host-mediated antitumor effects specific to particular tannin structures, antiviral activity and potentiation of antibacterial activity.
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        Epidemiology of candidemia in intensive care units.

        The incidence of candidemia in the overall population ranges from 1.7 to 10 episodes per 100,000 inhabitants and Candida is one of the ten leading causes of bloodstream infections in developed countries. An estimated 33-55% of all episodes of candidemia occur in intensive care units (ICU) and are associated with mortality rates ranging from 5% to 71%. Candida fungemia may have an endogenous or an exogenous origin, and in recent years a growing proportion of episodes of candidemia have been caused by Candida species other than albicans. The most important independent conditions predisposing to candidemia in ICU patients include prior abdominal surgery, intravascular catheters, acute renal failure, parenteral nutrition, broad-spectrum antibiotics, a prolonged ICU stay, the use of corticosteroids and mucosal colonization with Candida. In recent years, several studies have shown that ICU patients with mucosal Candida colonization, particularly if multifocal, are at a higher risk for invasive candidiasis, and that colonization selects a population amenable to antifungal prophylaxis or empirical therapy. Candidemia in ICUs is associated with a considerable increase in hospital costs and length of hospital stay.
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          Cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimicrobial activities of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids.

          Some natural products consisting of the alkaloids yohimbine and vincamine (indole-type), scopolamine and atropine (tropane-type), colchicine (tropolone-type), allantoin (imidazolidine-type), trigonelline (pyridine-type) as well as octopamine, synephrine, and capsaicin (exocyclic amine-type); the flavonoid derivatives quercetin, apigenin, genistein, naringin, silymarin, and silibinin; and the phenolic acids namely gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and quinic acid, were tested for their in vitro antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities and cytotoxicity. Antiviral activity of the compounds was tested against DNA virus herpes simplex type 1 and RNA virus parainfluenza (type-3). Cytotoxicity of the compounds was determined using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines, and their cytopathogenic effects were expressed as maximum non-toxic concentration. Antibacterial activity was assayed against following bacteria and their isolated strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis, although they were screened by microdilution method against two fungi: Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Atropine and gallic acid showed potent antiviral effect at the therapeutic range of 0.8-0.05 µg ml(-1), whilst all of the compounds exerted robust antibacterial effect. Antiviral and antimicrobial effects of the compounds tested herein may constitute a preliminary step for further relevant studies to identify the mechanism of action.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Programa de Doutorado em Biotecnologia da Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia Universidade Federal do Maranhão São Luís, Brazil
            2Laboratório de Patogênese Bacteriana, Programa de Mestrado em Biologia Parasitária, Universidade Ceuma São Luís, Brazil
            3Laboratório de Micologia Médica, Programa de Mestrado em Odontologia, Universidade Ceuma São Luís, Brazil
            4Laboratório de Micologia Médica, Programa de Mestrado em Biologia Parasitária, Universidade Ceuma São Luís, Brazil
            5Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Programa de Doutorado em Biotecnologia da Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão São Luís, Brazil
            6Instituto de Botânica, Centro de Pesquisa em Ecologia e Fisiologia São Paulo, Brasil
            7Programa de Pós-graduação, Universidade Ceuma São Luís, Brazil
            Author notes

            Edited by: Yuji Morita, Aichi Gakuin University, Japan

            Reviewed by: Monika Staniszewska, National Institute of Public Health—National Institute of Hygiene, Poland; Pedro Ismael Da Silva Junior, Instituto Butantan, Brazil; ChangZhong Wang, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, China

            *Correspondence: Cristina de Andrade Monteiro cristina.monteiro@ 123456ceuma.br

            This article was submitted to Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Microbiol
            Front Microbiol
            Front. Microbiol.
            Frontiers in Microbiology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1664-302X
            10 April 2017
            2017
            : 8
            5385348
            10.3389/fmicb.2017.00595
            Copyright © 2017 Terças, Monteiro, Moffa, Santos, Sousa, Pinto, Costa, Borges, Torres, Barros Filho, Fernandes and Monteiro.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Counts
            Figures: 8, Tables: 5, Equations: 1, References: 40, Pages: 13, Words: 7828
            Funding
            Funded by: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior 10.13039/501100002322
            Award ID: 3325/2013
            Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa e ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico do Maranhão 10.13039/501100003758
            Award ID: REBAX 00740/13
            Categories
            Microbiology
            Original Research

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