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      Biochemical and molecular screening of varieties of chili plants that are resistant against Fusarium wilt infection

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          Pakistan holds the position of top chilies producers. So Capsicum annuum L. production in Pakistan should be promoted by combating against diseases. The only solution is to cultivate resistant varieties. Presently six chili varieties were treated with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and screened for the most resistant and the most susceptible varieties. Representative varieties were evaluated for their biochemical and transcriptional profiles to discover the bases of antifungal-resistance. Results concluded that the most resistant variety was “Dandicut” and the most susceptible was “Ghotki”. Tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics, Riboflavins and saponins were observed in higher quantities in Dandicut as compared to Ghotki. Defense related enzymes i.e. polyphenol oxidase, phenyl ammonia lyase and peroxidase were found in elevated amounts in Dandicut than in Ghotki. Transcriptional results showed that defense related genes i.e. PR2a, acidic glucanase; Chitinase 3, acidic; Osmotin-like PR5 and Metallothionein 2b-like had higher expressional rates in Dandicut. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed stronger direct interaction in signal transduction and salicylic acid pathway. Resistance of chili varieties is salicylic acid based. Results obtained from this study not only help to improve chili production in Pakistan but also facilitate variety development operations. Moreover, it also constructed a scale to evaluate innate resistance among varieties.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Systemic Induction of Salicylic Acid Accumulation in Cucumber after Inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae.

          Inoculation of one true leaf of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae results in the systemic appearance of salicylic acid in the phloem exudates from petioles above, below, and at the site of inoculation. Analysis of phloem exudates from the petioles of leaves 1 and 2 demonstrated that the earliest increases in salicylic acid occurred 8 hours after inoculation of leaf 1 in leaf 1 and 12 hours after inoculation of leaf 1 in leaf 2. Detaching leaf 1 at intervals after inoculation demonstrated that leaf 1 must remain attached for only 4 hours after inoculation to result in the systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Because the levels of salicylic acid in phloem exudates from leaf 1 did not increase to detectable levels until at least 8 hours after inoculation with P. s. pathovar syringae, the induction of increased levels of salicylic acid throughout the plant are presumably the result of another chemical signal generated from leaf 1 within 4 hours after inoculation. Injection of salicylic acid into tissues at concentrations found in the exudates induced resistance to disease and increased peroxidase activity. Our results support a role for salicylic acid as an endogenous inducer of resistance, but our data also suggest that salicylic acid is not the primary systemic signal of induced resistance in cucumber.
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            Compromised disease resistance in saponin-deficient plants.

            Saponins are glycosylated plant secondary metabolites found in many major food crops [Price, K. R., Johnson, I. T. & Fenwick, G. R. (1987) CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 26, 27-133]. Because many saponins have potent antifungal properties and are present in healthy plants in high concentrations, these molecules may act as preformed chemical barriers to fungal attack. The isolation of plant mutants defective in saponin biosynthesis represents a powerful strategy for evaluating the importance of these compounds in plant defense. The oat root saponin avenacin A-1 fluoresces under ultraviolet illumination [Crombie, L., Crombie, W. M. L. & Whiting, D. A. (1986) J. Chem. Soc. Perkins 1, 1917-1922], a property that is extremely rare among saponins. Here we have exploited this fluorescence to isolate saponin-deficient (sad) mutants of a diploid oat species, Avena strigosa. These sad mutants are compromised in their resistance to a variety of fungal pathogens, and a number of lines of evidence suggest that this compromised disease resistance is a direct consequence of saponin deficiency. Because saponins are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, this group of secondary metabolites may have general significance as antimicrobial phytoprotectants.
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              Mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of PR proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato.

              The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during compatible or incompatible interactions. A new member of the PR-5 family was identified that accumulated early in both types of interaction. Other pathogenesis-related proteins appeared in compatible interactions only, concomitantly with disease development. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using proteomics for the identification of known and novel proteins in xylem sap, and provides insights into plant-pathogen interactions in vascular wilt diseases.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                March 2018
                : 8
                : 1
                : 12-19
                Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab , Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan
                Author notes

                Corresponding author: Sobiya Shafique; Phone: 00923076417576; sobiya.iags@ 123456pu.edu.pk

                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any - are indicated.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Original Research Paper


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