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A randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of knowledge translation and exchange strategies

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      Abstract

      Context

      Significant resources and time are invested in the production of research knowledge. The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of three knowledge translation and exchange strategies in the incorporation of research evidence into public health policies and programs.

      Methods

      This trial was conducted with a national sample of public health departments in Canada from 2004 to 2006. The three interventions, implemented over one year in 2005, included access to an online registry of research evidence; tailored messaging; and a knowledge broker. The primary outcome assessed the extent to which research evidence was used in a recent program decision, and the secondary outcome measured the change in the sum of evidence-informed healthy body weight promotion policies or programs being delivered at health departments. Mixed-effects models were used to test the hypotheses.

      Findings

      One hundred and eight of 141 (77%) health departments participated in this study. No significant effect of the intervention was observed for primary outcome (p < 0.45). However, for public health policies and programs (HPPs), a significant effect of the intervention was observed only for tailored, targeted messages (p < 0.01). The treatment effect was moderated by organizational research culture ( e.g., value placed on research evidence in decision making).

      Conclusion

      The results of this study suggest that under certain conditions tailored, targeted messages are more effective than knowledge brokering and access to an online registry of research evidence. Greater emphasis on the identification of organizational factors is needed in order to implement strategies that best meet the needs of individual organizations.

      Trial Registration

      The trial registration number and title are as follows: ISRCTN35240937 -- Is a knowledge broker more effective than other strategies in promoting evidence-based physical activity and healthy body weight programming?

      Related collections

      Most cited references 85

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      From best evidence to best practice: effective implementation of change in patients' care.

      Major difficulties arise when introducing evidence and clinical guidelines into routine daily practice. Data show that many patients do not receive appropriate care, or receive unnecessary or harmful care. Many approaches claim to offer solutions to this problem; which ones are as yet the most effective and efficient is unclear. We aim to provide an overview of present knowledge about initiatives to changing medical practice. Substantial evidence suggests that to change behaviour is possible, but this change generally requires comprehensive approaches at different levels (doctor, team practice, hospital, wider environment), tailored to specific settings and target groups. Plans for change should be based on characteristics of the evidence or guideline itself and barriers and facilitators to change. In general, evidence shows that none of the approaches for transferring evidence to practice is superior to all changes in all situations.
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        Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity.

        Childhood obesity increases the risk of obesity in adulthood, but how parental obesity affects the chances of a child's becoming an obese adult is unknown. We investigated the risk of obesity in young adulthood associated with both obesity in childhood and obesity in one or both parents. Height and weight measurements were abstracted from the records of 854 subjects born at a health maintenance organization in Washington State between 1965 and 1971. Their parents' medical records were also reviewed. Childhood obesity was defined as a body-mass index at or above the 85th percentile for age and sex, and obesity in adulthood as a mean body-mass index at or above 27.8 for men and 27.3 for women. In young adulthood (defined as 21 to 29 years of age), 135 subjects (16 percent) were obese. Among those who were obese during childhood, the chance of obesity in adulthood ranged from 8 percent for 1- or 2-year-olds without obese parents to 79 percent for 10-to-14-year-olds with at least one obese parent. After adjustment for parental obesity, the odds ratios for obesity in adulthood associated with childhood obesity ranged from 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 3.0) for obesity at 1 or 2 years of age to 17.5 (7.7 to 39.5) for obesity at 15 to 17 years of age. After adjustment for the child's obesity status, the odds ratios for obesity in adulthood associated with having one obese parent ranged from 2.2 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 4.3) at 15 to 17 years of age to 3.2 (1.8 to 5.7) at 1 or 2 years of age. Obese children under three years of age without obese parents are at low risk for obesity in adulthood, but among older children, obesity is an increasingly important predictor of adult obesity, regardless of whether the parents are obese. Parental obesity more than doubles the risk of adult obesity among both obese and nonobese children under 10 years of age.
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          Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure.

          During the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity in children has risen greatly worldwide. Obesity in childhood causes a wide range of serious complications, and increases the risk of premature illness and death later in life, raising public-health concerns. Results of research have provided new insights into the physiological basis of bodyweight regulation. However, treatment for childhood obesity remains largely ineffective. In view of its rapid development in genetically stable populations, the childhood obesity epidemic can be primarily attributed to adverse environmental factors for which straightforward, if politically difficult, solutions exist.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]School of Nursing, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3Z5, Canada
            [2 ]Center for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
            [3 ]The Guide to Community Preventive Services, National Center for Health Marketing, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
            Contributors
            Journal
            Implement Sci
            Implementation Science : IS
            BioMed Central
            1748-5908
            2009
            23 September 2009
            : 4
            : 61
            2936828
            1748-5908-4-61
            19775439
            10.1186/1748-5908-4-61
            Copyright ©2009 Dobbins et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Research Article

            Medicine

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