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      Cross-Cultural Variation in Political Leadership Styles


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          Guided by gaps in the literature with regard to the study of politicians the aim of the research is to explore cross-cultural differences in political leaders’ style. It compares the MLQ (Avolio & Bass, 2004) scores of elected political leaders (N = 140) in Bulgaria and the UK. The statistical exploration of the data relied on multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings of comparisons across the two groups reveal that compared to British political leaders, Bulgarian leaders were more likely to frequently use both transactional and passive/avoidant behaviours. The study tests Bass’s (1997) strong assertion about the universality of transformational leadership. It contributes to the leadership literature by providing directly measured data relating to the behaviours of political leaders. Such information on the characteristics of politicians could allow for more directional hypotheses in subsequent research, exploring the contextual influences within transformational leadership theory. The outcomes might also aid applied fields. Knowledge gained of culturally different leaders could be welcomed by multicultural political and economic unions, wherein understanding and allowances might aid communication.

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          Most cited references36

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          Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity.

          This study provided a comprehensive examination of the full range of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. Results (based on 626 correlations from 87 sources) revealed an overall validity of .44 for transformational leadership, and this validity generalized over longitudinal and multisource designs. Contingent reward (.39) and laissez-faire (-.37) leadership had the next highest overall relations; management by exception (active and passive) was inconsistently related to the criteria. Surprisingly, there were several criteria for which contingent reward leadership had stronger relations than did transformational leadership. Furthermore, transformational leadership was strongly correlated with contingent reward (.80) and laissez-faire (-.65) leadership. Transformational and contingent reward leadership generally predicted criteria controlling for the other leadership dimensions, although transformational leadership failed to predict leader job performance. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved
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            Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: a meta-analysis comparing women and men.

            A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness.
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              Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis.


                Author and article information

                Eur J Psychol
                Europe's Journal of Psychology
                Eur. J. Psychol.
                30 November 2017
                : 13
                : 4
                : 749-766
                [a ]Department of Psychology, BPP University , London, United Kingdom
                [b ]Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths College, University of London , London, United Kingdom
                [3]Webster University Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Psychology, BPP University, 137 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NN, United Kingdom. Phone: 0207 7866 813; 07746537884. petiaparamova@ 123456bpp.com

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 10 March 2017
                : 29 June 2017
                Self URI (journal-page): https://journals.psychopen.eu/
                Research Reports

                cross-cultural,MLQ,leadership,passive/avoidant leadership,transactional leadership,political leadership,transformational leadership


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