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      Rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients.

      The New England journal of medicine

      Acute Disease, Administration, Oral, Adult, Aged, Anticoagulants, adverse effects, therapeutic use, Double-Blind Method, Drug Administration Schedule, Enoxaparin, Factor Xa Inhibitors, Female, Hemorrhage, chemically induced, Humans, Injections, Subcutaneous, Male, Middle Aged, Morpholines, Thiophenes, Venous Thromboembolism, epidemiology, prevention & control

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          Abstract

          The clinically appropriate duration of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with acute medical illnesses is unknown. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban administered for an extended period, as compared with subcutaneous enoxaparin administered for a standard period, followed by placebo. We randomly assigned patients 40 years of age or older who were hospitalized for an acute medical illness to receive subcutaneous enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, for 10±4 days and oral placebo for 35±4 days or to receive subcutaneous placebo for 10±4 days and oral rivaroxaban, 10 mg once daily, for 35±4 days. The primary efficacy outcomes were the composite of asymptomatic proximal or symptomatic venous thromboembolism up to day 10 (noninferiority test) and up to day 35 (superiority test). The principal safety outcome was the composite of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. A total of 8101 patients underwent randomization. A primary efficacy outcome event occurred in 78 of 2938 patients (2.7%) receiving rivaroxaban and 82 of 2993 patients (2.7%) receiving enoxaparin at day 10 (relative risk with rivaroxaban, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.31; P=0.003 for noninferiority) and in 131 of 2967 patients (4.4%) who received rivaroxaban and 175 of 3057 patients (5.7%) who received enoxaparin followed by placebo at day 35 (relative risk, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.02). A principal safety outcome event occurred in 111 of 3997 patients (2.8%) in the rivaroxaban group and 49 of 4001 patients (1.2%) in the enoxaparin group at day 10 (P<0.001) and in 164 patients (4.1%) and 67 patients (1.7%) in the respective groups at day 35 (P<0.001). In acutely ill medical patients, rivaroxaban was noninferior to enoxaparin for standard-duration thromboprophylaxis. Extended-duration rivaroxaban reduced the risk of venous thromboembolism. Rivaroxaban was associated with an increased risk of bleeding. (Funded by Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Janssen Research and Development; MAGELLAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00571649.).

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          Most cited references 11

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          Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition).

          This article discusses the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and is part of the Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do or do not outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggestions imply that individual patient values may lead to different choices (for a full discussion of the grading, see the "Grades of Recommendation" chapter by Guyatt et al). Among the key recommendations in this chapter are the following: we recommend that every hospital develop a formal strategy that addresses the prevention of VTE (Grade 1A). We recommend against the use of aspirin alone as thromboprophylaxis for any patient group (Grade 1A), and we recommend that mechanical methods of thromboprophylaxis be used primarily for patients at high bleeding risk (Grade 1A) or possibly as an adjunct to anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2A). For patients undergoing major general surgery, we recommend thromboprophylaxis with a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH), or fondaparinux (each Grade 1A). We recommend routine thromboprophylaxis for all patients undergoing major gynecologic surgery or major, open urologic procedures (Grade 1A for both groups), with LMWH, LDUH, fondaparinux, or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). For patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty, we recommend one of the following three anticoagulant agents: LMWH, fondaparinux, or a vitamin K antagonist (VKA); international normalized ratio (INR) target, 2.5; range, 2.0 to 3.0 (each Grade 1A). For patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (HFS), we recommend the routine use of fondaparinux (Grade 1A), LMWH (Grade 1B), a VKA (target INR, 2.5; range, 2.0 to 3.0) [Grade 1B], or LDUH (Grade 1B). We recommend that patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty or HFS receive thromboprophylaxis for a minimum of 10 days (Grade 1A); for hip arthroplasty and HFS, we recommend continuing thromboprophylaxis > 10 days and up to 35 days (Grade 1A). We recommend that all major trauma and all spinal cord injury (SCI) patients receive thromboprophylaxis (Grade 1A). In patients admitted to hospital with an acute medical illness, we recommend thromboprophylaxis with LMWH, LDUH, or fondaparinux (each Grade 1A). We recommend that, on admission to the ICU, all patients be assessed for their risk of VTE, and that most receive thromboprophylaxis (Grade 1A).
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            Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of dalteparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients.

            Considerable variability exists in the use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis among acutely ill medical patients, partly because clinically relevant end points have not been fully assessed in this population. We undertook an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using clinically important outcomes to assess the efficacy and safety of dalteparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in such patients. Patients (n=3706) were randomly assigned to receive either subcutaneous dalteparin 5000 IU daily or placebo for 14 days and were followed up for 90 days. The primary end point was venous thromboembolism, defined as the combination of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, symptomatic pulmonary embolism, and asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis detected by compression ultrasound at day 21 and sudden death by day 21. The incidence of venous thromboembolism was reduced from 4.96% (73 of 1473 patients) in the placebo group to 2.77% (42 of 1518 patients) in the dalteparin group, an absolute risk reduction of 2.19% or a relative risk reduction of 45% (relative risk, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.80; P=0.0015). The observed benefit was maintained at 90 days. The overall incidence of major bleeding was low but higher in the dalteparin group (9 patients; 0.49%) compared with the placebo group (3 patients; 0.16%). Dalteparin 5000 IU once daily halved the rate of venous thromboembolism with a low risk of bleeding.
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              Efficacy and safety of fondaparinux for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in older acute medical patients: randomised placebo controlled trial.

              To determine the efficacy and safety of the anticoagulant fondaparinux in older acute medical inpatients at moderate to high risk of venous thromboembolism. Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial. 35 centres in eight countries. 849 medical patients aged 60 or more admitted to hospital for congestive heart failure, acute respiratory illness in the presence of chronic lung disease, or acute infectious or inflammatory disease and expected to remain in bed for at least four days. 2.5 mg fondaparinux or placebo subcutaneously once daily for six to 14 days. The primary efficacy outcome was venous thromboembolism detected by routine bilateral venography along with symptomatic venous thromboembolism up to day 15. Secondary outcomes were bleeding and death. Patients were followed up at one month. 425 patients in the fondaparinux group and 414 patients in the placebo group were evaluable for safety analysis (10 were not treated). 644 patients (75.9%) were available for the primary efficacy analysis. Venous thrombembolism was detected in 5.6% (18/321) of patients treated with fondaparinux and 10.5% (34/323) of patients given placebo, a relative risk reduction of 46.7% (95% confidence interval 7.7% to 69.3%). Symptomatic venous thromboembolism occurred in five patients in the placebo group and none in the fondaparinux group (P = 0.029). Major bleeding occurred in one patient (0.2%) in each group. At the end of follow-up, 14 patients in the fondaparinux group (3.3%) and 25 in the placebo group (6.0%) had died. Fondaparinux is effective in the prevention of asymptomatic and symptomatic venous thromboembolic events in older acute medical patients. The frequency of major bleeding was similar for both fondaparinux and placebo treated patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                23388003
                10.1056/NEJMoa1111096

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