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      Role of erythropoietin in the angiogenic activity of bone marrow endothelial cells of MGUS and multiple myeloma patients

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          Abstract

          Increasing evidences suggest several biological roles for erythropoietin and its receptor (Epo and EpoR), unrelated to erythropoiesis, including angiogenesis. Here, we detected the expression of EpoR in bone marrow-derived endothelial cells from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) patients (MGECs and MMECs, respectively) and assessed whether Epo plays a role in MGECs- and MMECs-mediated angiogenesis. We show that EpoR is expressed by both MGECs and MMECs even though at a higher level in the first ones. Both EC types respond to rHuEpo in terms of cell proliferation, whereas other responses, including activation of JAK2/STAT5 and PI3K/Akt pathways, cell migration and capillarogenesis are enhanced by Epo in MGECs, but not in MMECs. In addition, the conditioned media of both Epo-treated cells induce a strong angiogenic response in vivo in the chorioallantoic membrane assay, comparable to that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Overall, these data highlight the effect of Epo on MGECs- and MMECs-mediated angiogenesis: MGECs are more responsive to Epo treatment than MMECs, probably because over-angiogenic phenotype of MMECs is already activated by their autocrine/paracrine loops occurring in the “angiogenic switch” from MGUS.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

           K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Treatment of stroke with erythropoietin enhances neurogenesis and angiogenesis and improves neurological function in rats.

            Erythropoietin (EPO) promotes proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitors and the survival of maturing erythroid cells. Here, we investigated the role of EPO in brain repair after stroke. Rats were treated with recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) at 24 hours after the onset of embolic stroke. An array of behavior tests was performed. Rats were euthanized 28 days after stroke for measurements of infarct volume, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis. In vitro, neurospheres derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the rat and cerebral endothelial cells derived from the mouse were treated with rhEPO. Capillary-like tube formation and neuronal differentiation were measured. Treatment with rhEPO significantly improved functional recovery, along with increases in density of cerebral microvessels at the stroke boundary and numbers of BrdU, doublecortin, and nestin immunoreactive cells in the SVZ. rhEPO treatment significantly increased brain levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In vitro, rhEPO enhanced capillary tube formation of cerebral endothelial cells, which was inhibited by a specific VEGF receptor 2 antagonist (SU1498). Incubation of neurospheres derived from stroke SVZ with anti-EPO neutralizing antibody inhibited neurogenesis, whereas incubation of stroke-derived neurospheres with rhEPO enhanced neurogenesis. Our data suggest that EPO-increased VEGF and BDNF may be involved in angiogenesis and neurogenesis, which could contribute to functional recovery.
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              Erythropoietin receptor mRNA expression in human endothelial cells.

              A previous report demonstrated that endothelial cells have erythropoietin receptors and respond to this hormone with enhanced proliferation. The present study demonstrates the existence of mRNA for erythropoietin receptor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We have reverse transcribed mRNA of endothelial cells and then used different PCR primers to amplify erythropoietin receptor target cDNA between exons 5 and 6 as well as 3-5 in addition to an internal standard DNA fragment. Correspondence of size as well as location of restriction endonuclease scission (Ava II) was used in comparing the amplified fragments of human endothelial cell erythropoietin receptor to those of two human erythroleukemia cell lines, OCIM1 and K562. No alpha- or gamma-globin mRNA was detected in endothelial cells but was readily demonstrable in OCIM1 cells. In addition, to determine whether the expression of human erythropoietin receptor on endothelial cells occurs in vivo, sections of umbilical cord and placenta were immunostained with antibodies against the extracellular portion of the receptor; the results showed strong positive staining of the vascular endothelium.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                22 March 2016
                22 February 2016
                : 7
                : 12
                : 14510-14521
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy
                2 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy
                3 National Cancer Institute “Giovanni Paolo II”, Bari, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Domenico Ribatti, domenico.ribatti@ 123456uniba.it
                Article
                7587
                10.18632/oncotarget.7587
                4924732
                26919105
                Copyright: © 2016 Lamanuzzi et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Research Paper

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