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      Muscarinic receptors and ligands in cancer.

      American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology

      Acetylcholine, metabolism, Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, pharmacology, Apoptosis, Cell Movement, Cell Proliferation, Disease Progression, Humans, Ligands, Muscarinic Antagonists, Neoplasms, drug therapy, pathology, Neurons, Protein Conformation, Receptors, Muscarinic, chemistry, drug effects, Signal Transduction

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          Abstract

          Emerging evidence indicates that muscarinic receptors and ligands play key roles in regulating cellular proliferation and cancer progression. Both neuronal and nonneuronal acetylcholine production results in neurocrine, paracrine, and autocrine promotion of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and other features critical for cancer cell survival and spread. The present review comprises a focused critical analysis of evidence supporting the role of muscarinic receptors and ligands in cancer. Criteria are proposed to validate the biological importance of muscarinic receptor expression, activation, and postreceptor signaling. Likewise, criteria are proposed to validate the role of nonneuronal acetylcholine production in cancer. Dissecting cellular mechanisms necessary for muscarinic receptor activation as well as those needed for acetylcholine production and release will identify multiple novel targets for cancer therapy.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          19036940
          2643856
          10.1152/ajpcell.00514.2008

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