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      Subinhibitory Dalbavancin Attenuates Exotoxin Production from Methicillin-Sensitive and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro

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          ABSTRACT

          This study investigated the effects of subinhibitory doses of the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic dalbavancin on Staphylococcus aureus toxin production in vitro . S. aureus toxin production levels were compared to those seen with the natural glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin and with representative beta-lactam and oxazolidinone antibiotics. While neither dalbavancin nor vancomycin adversely affected toxin production, of these glycopeptide antibiotics, only dalbavancin significantly attenuated toxin production at subinhibitory concentrations. These findings support the recent success of dalbavancin for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Targeting of alpha-hemolysin by active or passive immunization decreases severity of USA300 skin infection in a mouse model.

          Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are predominantly those affecting skin and soft tissues. Although progress has been made, our knowledge of the molecules that contribute to the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA skin infections is incomplete. We tested the hypothesis that alpha-hemolysin (Hla) contributes to the severity of USA300 skin infections in mice and determined whether vaccination against Hla reduces disease severity. Isogenic hla-negative (Deltahla) strains caused skin lesions in a mouse infection model that were significantly smaller than those caused by wild-type USA300 and Newman strains. Moreover, infection due to wild-type strains produced dermonecrotic skin lesions, whereas there was little or no dermonecrosis in mice infected with Deltahla strains. Passive immunization with Hla-specific antisera or active immunization with a nontoxigenic form of Hla significantly reduced the size of skin lesions caused by USA300 and prevented dermonecrosis. We conclude that Hla is a potential target for therapeutics or vaccines designed to moderate severe S. aureus skin infections.
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            The role of the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin in staphylococcal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

            Summary Background Invasive community-onset staphylococcal disease has emerged worldwide associated with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) toxin. Whether PVL is pathogenic or an epidemiological marker is unclear. We investigate the role of PVL in disease, colonisation, and clinical outcome. Methods We searched Medline and Embase for original research reporting the prevalence of PVL genes among Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, bacteraemia, musculoskeletal infection, skin and soft-tissue infection, or colonisation published before Oct 1, 2011. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) to compare patients with PVL-positive colonisation and each infection relative to the odds of PVL-positive skin and soft-tissue infection. We did meta-analyses to estimate odds of infection or colonisation with a PVL-positive strain with fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the results of tests for heterogeneity. Results Of 509 articles identified by our search strategy, 76 studies from 31 countries met our inclusion criteria. PVL strains are strongly associated with skin and soft-tissue infections, but are comparatively rare in pneumonia (OR 0·37, 95% CI 0·22–0·63), musculoskeletal infections (0·44, 0·19–0·99), bacteraemias (0·10, 0·06–0·18), and colonising strains (0·07, 0·01–0·31). PVL-positive skin and soft-tissue infections are more likely to be treated surgically than are PVL-negative infections, and children with PVL-positive musculoskeletal disease might have increased morbidity. For other forms of disease we identified no evidence that PVL affects outcome. Interpretation PVL genes are consistently associated with skin and soft-tissue infections and are comparatively rare in invasive disease. This finding challenges the view that PVL mainly causes invasive disease with poor prognosis. Population-based studies are needed to define the role of PVL in mild, moderate, and severe disease and to inform control strategies. Funding None.
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              Impact of antibiotics on expression of virulence-associated exotoxin genes in methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

              Extracellular protein toxins contribute to the pathogenesis of a wide variety of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The present study investigated the effects that cell-wall active antibiotics and protein-synthesis inhibitors have on transcription and translation of genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, alpha-hemolysin, and toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1, in both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Subinhibitory concentrations of nafcillin induced and prolonged mRNA for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, alpha-toxin, and toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1 and increased toxin production. In contrast, clindamycin and linezolid markedly suppressed translation, but not transcription, of toxin genes. These results suggest (1) that protein-synthesis inhibition is an important consideration in the selection of antimicrobial agents to treat serious infections caused by toxin-producing gram-positive pathogens and (2) that, by inducing and enhancing toxin production, inadvertent use of beta-lactam antibiotics to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections may contribute to worse outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
                Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
                American Society for Microbiology
                0066-4804
                1098-6596
                October 24 2017
                November 2017
                November 2017
                September 05 2017
                : 61
                : 11
                Article
                10.1128/AAC.01090-17
                5655096
                28874375
                © 2017
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