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      Insulinoma

      Neuroendocrinology

      S. Karger AG

      Pancreas, Insulinoma, Endocrine tumor, Insulin, C-peptide

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          Abstract

          More than 90% of insulinomas are benign tumors. Insulinomas cause hypoglycemia and thereby symptoms of neuroglycopenia and catecholamine response. During symptoms, blood glucose levels should be less than 40 mg/dl (less than 2.2 mmol/l), concomitant insulin levels should be ≧6 IU/ml (≧43 pmol/l) and concomitant C-peptide levels ≧0.2 pmol/l. Most insulinomas can be identified intraoperatively by experienced surgeons. Initial therapy consists of administration of frequent meals and/or by glucose infusion. In patients with solitary insulinomas, complete surgical removal of the tumor should be the primary goal. In patients with metastatic insulinomas, symptoms of insulin hypersecretion will only completely disappear after complete resection of all metastases.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Surgical treatment of neuroendocrine metastases to the liver: a plea for resection to increase survival.

          Hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors have a protracted natural history and are associated with endocrinopathies. Resection is indicated for symptom control. Previous reports have suggested improvement in survival for patients undergoing debulking procedures. The records of all consecutive patients undergoing resection of hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors between 1977 and 1998 were reviewed. Tumors were classified according to histology, endocrine activity, and primary location. Patients lost to followup before 1 year were excluded. Followups were based on outpatient evaluations and were updated by correspondence. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate survival and recurrence curves, and the log-rank test was used for comparison. A total of 170 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of whom 73 were men. Mean age (+/-SD) was 57 (+/-11.5) years. Carcinoid (n = 120) and nonfunctioning islet cell tumors (n = 18) predominated; the ileum (n = 85) and the pancreas (n = 52) were the most common primary sites. Major hepatectomy (one or more lobes) was performed in 91 patients (54%). The postoperative complication rate was 14%, and two patients died (1.2%). Operation controlled symptoms in 104 of 108 patients, but the recurrence rate at 5 years was 59%. Operation decreased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels considerably, and no patient experienced carcinoid heart disease postoperatively. Recurrence rate was 84% at 5 years. Overall survival was 61% and 35% at 5 and 10 years, respectively, with no difference between carcinoid and islet cell tumors. Hepatic resection for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors is safe and achieves symptom control in most patients. Debulking extends survival, although recurrence is expected. Hepatic resection is justified by its effects on survival and quality of life.
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            Hepatic arterial chemoembolization in patients with liver metastases of endocrine tumors. A prospective phase II study in 24 patients.

            Liver metastases of endocrine tumors are of major prognostic significance. The various therapeutic approaches have given disappointing results; however, locoregional treatment has allowed transient control of hepatic tumor growth. Twenty-four patients with liver metastases of endocrine tumors (mainly carcinoid tumors [n = 18] and gastrinomas [n = 5]) were included in a Phase II study of hepatic arterial chemoembolization (CE). Metastases were bilateral in all patients and invaded more than 50% of the liver in 12. They were synchronous of the primary tumor in 62.5% of the patients. Seventeen patients had not responded to previous intravenous chemotherapy. CE courses were performed every 3 months using an emulsion of 10 ml of iodized oil and doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 injected into tumor vessels, followed by CE arterial occlusion with gelatin sponge particles. Seventy-one CE courses were performed in 23 patients; there was one technical failure. Among patients with carcinoid tumors, disappearance of diarrhea and/or flushing was observed in 8 of 11. Serotonin and/or its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels decreased by more than 50% in 57% of the patients. The size of liver metastases decreased by at least 50% in 6 of 18 patients, i.e., in 33% (range, 12-54%). Two had complete responses. The median duration of the responses was 14 months (range, 6-40). Among patients with noncarcinoid tumors, minor response or stabilization occurred in three of five patients. Major side effects were bleeding peptic ulcer (one patient) and oligoanuric renal failure (one patient). Abdominal pain, fever, and increases in hepatic enzyme levels were common and transient. These results suggest that CE is effective in patients with liver metastases of endocrine tumors, mainly in carcinoids. In the latter, CE allows control of the carcinoid syndrome and regression or stabilization of the liver tumors in 80% of patients.
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              Laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation of neuroendocrine liver metastases.

              We previously reported on the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) for treating hepatic neuroendocrine metastases. The aim of this study is to report our 5-year RFA experience in the treatment of these challenging group of patients. Of the 222 patients with 803 liver primary and secondary tumors undergoing laparoscopic RFA between January 1996 and August 2001, a total of 34 patients with 234 tumors had neuroendocrine liver metastases. There were 25 men and 9 women with a mean +/- SEM age of 52 +/- 2 years who underwent 42 ablations. Primary tumor types included carcinoid tumor in 18 patients, medullary thyroid cancer in 7, secreting islet cell tumor in 5, and nonsecreting islet cell tumor in 4. There was no mortality, and the morbidity was 5%. The mean hospital stay was 1.1 days. Symptoms were ameliorated in 95%, with significant or complete symptom control in 80% of the patients for a mean of 10+ months (range 6-24 months). All patients were followed for a mean +/- SEM of 1.6 +/- 0.2 years (range 1.0-5.4 years). During this period new liver lesions developed in 28% of patients, new extrahepatic disease in 25%, and local liver recurrence in 13%; existing liver lesions progressed in 13%. Overall 41% of patients showed no progression of their cancer. Nine patients (27%) died. Mean +/- SEM survivals after diagnosis of primary disease, detection of liver metastases, and performance of RFA were 5.5 +/- 0.8 years, 3.0 +/- 0.3 years, and 1.6 +/- 0.2 years, respectively. Sixty-five percent of the patients demonstrated a partial or significant decrease in their tumor markers during follow-up. In conclusion, RFA provides excellent local tumor control with overnight hospitalization and low morbidity in the treatment of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors. It is a useful modality in the management of these challenging group of patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7848-6
                978-3-318-01162-3
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2004
                October 2004
                15 October 2004
                : 80
                : Suppl 1
                : 20-22
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                80735 Neuroendocrinology 2004;80(suppl 1):20–22
                10.1159/000080735
                15477711
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                References: 23, Pages: 3
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