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      Neuronal Differentiation of Hippocampus-Derived Neural Stem Cells Cultured in Conditioned Medium of Embryonic Rat Retina

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To investigate whether conditioned medium from embryonic rat retinas can induce differentiation of adult rat hippocampus-derived neural stem cells (AHSCs) into neurons and glia in vitro. Methods: AHSCs were cultured in 3 types of media: standard culture medium, conditioned medium from embryonic rat retina, and standard culture medium with retinoic acid. Neuronal and glial differentiation of the cultured cells was assessed by cell growth analysis, flow cytometric analysis, immunofluorescent staining, and RT-PCR analysis. Results: Cells cultured in the standard medium showed very little neuronal and glial differentiation. The cells cultured in the conditioned medium and the medium with retinoic acid showed neuronal morphology and growth inhibition. They also expressed mature neuronal markers and glial markers. In addition, the cells cultured in the conditioned medium expressed Thy-1, HPC-1, and calbindin, which were not found in the previous studies with postnatal retinas in vivo. Those cultured in the medium with retinoic acid expressed HPC-1 and calbindin, but not Thy-1. Conclusions: Conditioned medium from embryonic rat retina contains factors that induce neuronal and glial cell differentiation of AHSCs, and promote up-regulation of some types of retinal cell markers.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Stem cells in the central nervous system.

           Tristan McKay (1997)
          In the vertebrate central nervous system, multipotential cells have been identified in vitro and in vivo. Defined mitogens cause the proliferation of multipotential cells in vitro, the magnitude of which is sufficient to account for the number of cells in the brain. Factors that control the differentiation of fetal stem cells to neurons and glia have been defined in vitro, and multipotential cells with similar signaling logic can be cultured from the adult central nervous system. Transplanting cells to new sites emphasizes that neuroepithelial cells have the potential to integrate into many brain regions. These results focus attention on how information in external stimuli is translated into the number and types of differentiated cells in the brain. The development of therapies for the reconstruction of the diseased or injured brain will be guided by our understanding of the origin and stability of cell type in the central nervous system.
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            The adult rat hippocampus contains primordial neural stem cells.

            Adult-derived hippocampal progenitors generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in vitro and following grafting into the adult brain. Although these progenitors have a considerable capacity for in vitro self renewal, it is not known if each lineage is generated by separate committed precursors or by multipotent stem cells. By genetic marking, we have followed individual cells through the process of proliferative expansion, commitment, and differentiation. All three lineages are generated by single marked cells and the relative proportions of each lineage can be strongly influenced by environmental cues. Differentiation is accompanied by a characteristic progression of lineage-specific markers and can be potentiated by retinoic acid, elevated cyclic AMP, or neurotrophic factors. The ability to genetically mark and clone normal diploid hippocampal progenitors provides the first definitive evidence that multipotent neural stem cells exist outside of the adult striatal subventricular zone and supports the hypothesis that FGF-2-responsive neural stem cells may be broadly distributed in the adult brain.
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              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Regulatory mechanisms in stem cell biology.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2003
                October 2003
                22 August 2003
                : 35
                : 5
                : 268-275
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan
                Article
                72148 Ophthalmic Res 2003;35:268–275
                10.1159/000072148
                12920340
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 28, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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