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      Relationship Between Obesity and Diabetes in a US Adult Population: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2006

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          Abstract

          Background

          Obesity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of diabetes with increasing severity of obesity and the distribution of HbA1c levels in diabetics participating in the latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

          Methods

          Data from a representative sample of adults with diabetes participating in the NHANES between 1999 and 2006 were reviewed. The prevalence of diabetes and levels of fasting glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and HbA1c were examined across different weight classes with normal weight, overweight, and obesity classes 1, 2, and 3 were defined as body mass index (BMI) of <25.0, 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and equal to 40.0, respectively. The distribution of HbA1c levels among adults with diabetes was also examined.

          Results

          There were 2,894 adults with diabetes (13.6%) among the 21,205 surveyed participants. Among the adults with diabetes, the mean age was 59 years, the mean fasting glucose was 155 ± 2 mg/dl, and the mean HbA1c was 7.2%; 80.3% of diabetics were considered overweight (BMI ≥ 25) and 49.1% of diabetics were considered obese (BMI ≥ 30). The prevalence of adults with diabetes increased with increasing weight classes, from 8% for normal weight individuals to 43% for individuals with obesity class 3; the distribution of HbA1c levels were considered as good (<7.0%) in 60%, fair (7.0–8.0%) in 17%, and poor (>8.0%) in 23%. The mean fasting glucose and HbA1c levels were highest for diabetics with BMI <25.0, suggesting a state of higher severity of disease. Mean insulin and c-peptide levels were highest for diabetics with BMI = 35.0, suggesting a state of insulin resistance.

          Conclusions

          In a nationally representative sample of US adults, the prevalence of diabetes increases with increasing weight classes. Nearly one fourth of adults with diabetes have poor glycemic control and nearly half of adult diabetics are considered obese suggesting that weight loss is an important intervention in an effort to reduce the impact of diabetes on the health care system.

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          Most cited references6

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          Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the look AHEAD trial.

          The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events. This study consisted of a multicentered, randomized, controlled trial of 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 45-74 years, with BMI >25 kg/m2 (>27 kg/m2 if taking insulin). An intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) involving group and individual meetings to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity was compared with a diabetes support and education (DSE) condition. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight vs. 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001). Mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9 vs. 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of ILI participants had reductions in diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering medicines. Mean A1C dropped from 7.3 to 6.6% in ILI (P < 0.001) vs. from 7.3 to 7.2% in DSE. Systolic and diastolic pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio improved significantly more in ILI than DSE participants (all P < 0.01). At 1 year, ILI resulted in clinically significant weight loss in people with type 2 diabetes. This was associated with improved diabetes control and CVD risk factors and reduced medicine use in ILI versus DSE. Continued intervention and follow-up will determine whether these changes are maintained and will reduce CVD risk.
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            Surgery decreases long-term mortality, morbidity, and health care use in morbidly obese patients.

            This study tested the hypothesis that weight-reduction (bariatric) surgery reduces long-term mortality in morbidly obese patients. Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The impact of surgically induced, long-term weight loss on this mortality is unknown. We used an observational 2-cohort study. The treatment cohort (n = 1035) included patients having undergone bariatric surgery at the McGill University Health Centre between 1986 and 2002. The control group (n = 5746) included age- and gender-matched severely obese patients who had not undergone weight-reduction surgery identified from the Quebec provincial health insurance database. Subjects with medical conditions (other then morbid obesity) at cohort-inception into the study were excluded. The cohorts were followed for a maximum of 5 years from inception. The cohorts were well matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. Bariatric surgery resulted in significant reduction in mean percent excess weight loss (67.1%, P < 0.001). Bariatric surgery patients had significant risk reductions for developing cardiovascular, cancer, endocrine, infectious, psychiatric, and mental disorders compared with controls, with the exception of hematologic (no difference) and digestive diseases (increased rates in the bariatric cohort). The mortality rate in the bariatric surgery cohort was 0.68% compared with 6.17% in controls (relative risk 0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.27), which translates to a reduction in the relative risk of death by 89%. This study shows that weight-loss surgery significantly decreases overall mortality as well as the development of new health-related conditions in morbidly obese patients.
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              Effect of laparoscopic Roux-en Y gastric bypass on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

              To evaluate pre- and postoperative clinical parameters associated with improvement of diabetes up to 4 years after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The surgical treatment of morbid obesity leads to dramatic improvement in the comorbidity status of most patients with T2DM. However, little is known concerning what preoperative clinical factors are associated with postoperative long-term improvement in diabetes in the morbidly obese patient with diabetes. METHODS We evaluated pre- and postoperative data, including demographics, duration of diabetes, metabolic parameters, and clinical outcomes, in all patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type T2DM undergoing LRYGBP from July 1997 to May 2002. During this 5-year period, 1160 patients underwent LRYGBP and 240 (21%) had IFG or T2DM. Follow up was possible in 191 of 240 patients (80%). There were 144 females (75%) with a mean preoperative age of 48 years (range, 26-67 years). After surgery, weight and body mass index decreased from 308 lbs and 50.1 kg/m2 to 211 lbs and 34 kg/m2 for a mean weight loss of 97 lbs and mean excess weight loss of 60%. Fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations returned to normal levels (83%) or markedly improved (17%) in all patients. A significant reduction in use of oral antidiabetic agents (80%) and insulin (79%) followed surgical treatment. Patients with the shortest duration (<5 years), the mildest form of T2DM (diet controlled), and the greatest weight loss after surgery were most likely to achieve complete resolution of T2DM. LRYGBP resulted in significant weight loss (60% percent of excess body weight loss) and resolution (83%) of T2DM. Patients with the shortest duration and mildest form of T2DM had a higher rate of T2DM resolution after surgery, suggesting that early surgical intervention is warranted to increase the likelihood of rendering patients euglycemic.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +1-714-4568598 , +1-714-4566027 , ninhn@uci.edu
                Journal
                Obes Surg
                Obesity Surgery
                Springer-Verlag (New York )
                0960-8923
                1708-0428
                3 December 2010
                3 December 2010
                March 2011
                : 21
                : 3
                : 351-355
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, 333 City Bldg. West, Suite 850, Orange, CA 92868 USA
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA USA
                Article
                335
                10.1007/s11695-010-0335-4
                3040808
                21128002
                d0eb4852-d045-43f7-94bb-9a1705216fec
                © The Author(s) 2010
                History
                Categories
                Basic Science Research
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

                Surgery
                national health and nutrition examination survey,obesity,diabetes,hba1c levels
                Surgery
                national health and nutrition examination survey, obesity, diabetes, hba1c levels

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