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      No Time to Die: Can We Fix a Broken Cardiovascular Clock?

      * ,
      S. Karger AG

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          Circadian variation in the frequency of onset of acute myocardial infarction.

          To determine whether the onset of myocardial infarction occurs randomly throughout the day, we analyzed the time of onset of pain in 2999 patients admitted with myocardial infarction. A marked circadian rhythm in the frequency of onset was detected, with a peak from 6 a.m. to noon (P less than 0.01). In 703 of the patients, the time of the first elevation in the plasma creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) level could be used to time the onset of myocardial infarction objectively. CK-MB-estimated timing confirmed the existence of a circadian rhythm, with a three-fold increase in the frequency of onset of myocardial infarction at peak (9 a.m.) as compared with trough (11 p.m.) periods. The circadian rhythm was not detected in patients receiving beta-adrenergic blocking agents before myocardial infarction but was present in those not receiving such therapy. If coronary arteries become vulnerable to occlusion when the intima covering an atherosclerotic plaque is disrupted, the circadian timing of myocardial infarction may result from a variation in the tendency to thrombosis. If the rhythmic processes that drive the circadian rhythm of myocardial-infarction onset can be identified, their modification may delay or prevent the occurrence of infarction.
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            Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a longitudinal study of 10,701 adults.

            This study sought to identify the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Risk stratification for SCD, a major cause of mortality, is difficult. OSA is linked to cardiovascular disease and arrhythmias and has been shown to increase the risk of nocturnal SCD. It is unknown if OSA independently increases the risk of SCD. We included 10,701 consecutive adults undergoing their first diagnostic polysomnogram between July 1987 and July 2003. During follow-up up to 15 years, we assessed incident resuscitated or fatal SCD in relation to the presence of OSA, physiological data including the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and nocturnal oxygen saturation (O2sat) parameters, and relevant comorbidities. During an average follow-up of 5.3 years, 142 patients had resuscitated or fatal SCD (annual rate 0.27%). In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for SCD were age, hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy or heart failure, ventricular ectopy or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and lowest nocturnal O2sat (per 10% decrease, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14; p = 0.029). SCD was best predicted by age >60 years (HR: 5.53), apnea-hypopnea index >20 (HR: 1.60), mean nocturnal O2sat <93% (HR: 2.93), and lowest nocturnal O2sat <78% (HR: 2.60; all p < 0.0001). In a population of 10,701 adults referred for polysomnography, OSA predicted incident SCD, and the magnitude of risk was predicted by multiple parameters characterizing OSA severity. Nocturnal hypoxemia, an important pathophysiological feature of OSA, strongly predicted SCD independently of well-established risk factors. These findings implicate OSA, a prevalent condition, as a novel risk factor for SCD. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Circadian variation in the incidence of sudden cardiac death in the Framingham Heart Study population.

              To determine if sudden cardiac death shows circadian variation, the time of day of sudden cardiac deaths in the Framingham Heart Study was analyzed. Analysis was based on mortality data collected in a standardized manner for the past 38 years for each death among the 5,209 persons in the original cohort. The necessary assumptions about the cause and timing of unwitnessed deaths were made in a manner likely to diminish the possibility of detecting an increased incidence of sudden cardiac death during the morning. In the Framingham study, analyses using these assumptions reveal a significant circadian variation (p less than 0.01) in occurrence of sudden cardiac death (n = 429), with a peak incidence from 7 to 9 AM and a decreased incidence from 9 AM to 1 PM. Risk of sudden cardiac death was at least 70% higher during the peak period than was the average risk during other times of the day. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in other populations, to collect data regarding medications and to determine activity immediately before sudden cardiac death. Investigation of physiologic changes occurring during the period of increased incidence of sudden cardiac death may provide increased insight into its causes and suggest possible means of prevention.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 2020
                29 April 2020
                : 145
                : 6
                : 356-358
                Medical Research and Education Center, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation
                Author notes
                *Simon Matskeplishvili, MD, PhD, Medical Research and Education Center, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 27/10 Lomonosovsky prospect, Moscow 119234 (Russia), simonmats@yahoo.com
                506730 Cardiology 2020;145:356–358
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 17 February 2020
                : 24 February 2020
                Page count
                Pages: 3
                HF and Intensive Care: Editorial Comment

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology


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