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      Repeated Administration Effects on Psychomotor Vigilance Test Performance

      , , , , , , ,
      Sleep
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Patterns of performance degradation and restoration during sleep restriction and subsequent recovery: a sleep dose-response study

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            Validity and Sensitivity of a Brief Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT-B) to Total and Partial Sleep Deprivation.

            The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) objectively assesses fatigue-related changes in alertness associated with sleep loss, extended wakefulness, circadian misalignment, and time on task. The standard 10-min PVT is often considered impractical in applied contexts. To address this limitation, we developed a modified brief 3-min version of the PVT (PVT-B). The PVT-B was validated in controlled laboratory studies with 74 healthy subjects (34 female, aged 22-45 years) that participated either in a total sleep deprivation (TSD) study involving 33 hours awake (N=31 subjects) or in a partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol involving 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (N=43 subjects). PVT and PVT-B were performed regularly during wakefulness. Effect sizes of 5 key PVT outcomes were larger for TSD than PSD and larger for PVT than for PVT-B for all outcomes. Effect size was largest for response speed (reciprocal response time) for both the PVT-B and the PVT in both TSD and PSD. According to Cohen's criteria, effect sizes for the PVT-B were still large (TSD) or medium to large (PSD, except for fastest 10% RT). Compared to the 70% decrease in test duration the 22.7% (range 6.9%-67.8%) average decrease in effect size was deemed an acceptable trade-off between duration and sensitivity. Overall, PVT-B performance had faster response times, more false starts and fewer lapses than PVT performance (all p 0.15) but the fastest 10% response times during PSD (P<0.001), and effect sizes increased from 1.38 to 1.49 (TSD) and 0.65 to 0.76 (PSD), respectively. In conclusion, PVT-B tracked standard 10-min PVT performance throughout both TSD and PSD, and yielded medium to large effect sizes. PVT-B may be a useful tool for assessing behavioral alertness in settings where the duration of the 10-min PVT is considered impractical, although further validation in applied settings is needed.
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              Sleep, circadian rhythms, and psychomotor vigilance.

              Psychomotor vigilance performance is highly relevant to athletic performance. It is influenced by a sleep homeostatic process, which builds up pressure for sleep during wakefulness and dissipates this pressure during sleep, and a circadian rhythm process, which produces a waxing and waning of pressure for wakefulness over a 24 hours of the day. During total sleep deprivation, these two processes cause performance to deteriorate progressively over days, modulated within days by further performance reductions at night and relative improvements during the daytime. As the homeostatic pressure for sleep builds up higher across prolonged wakefulness, the rate of dissipation of that pressure during subsequent sleep is enhanced exponentially, so that even brief periods of sleep provide significant performance recuperation. Nevertheless, sleep restriction practiced on a chronic basis induces cumulative performance deficits of the same order of magnitude as observed during total sleep deprivation. There are also considerable individual differences in the degree of vulnerability to performance impairment from sleep loss, and these differences represent a trait.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sleep
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0161-8105
                1550-9109
                January 2018
                January 01 2018
                November 08 2017
                January 2018
                January 01 2018
                November 08 2017
                : 41
                : 1
                Article
                10.1093/sleep/zsx187
                29126328
                d106c63c-8799-4a7e-8c56-e9685a7c2782
                © 2017
                History

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