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      Apoplexy Inside a Giant Medial Sphenoid Wing Meningothelial (Grade I) Meningioma: An Extremely Rare but a Potentially Dangerous Complication

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          Abstract

          Hemorrhage associated with meningiomas is extremely rare and most commonly occurs in convexity meningiomas of higher grade or the angioblastic variety. Moreover, bleeding associated with a meningioma usually occurs in the form of a subdural hematoma or subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report a case of giant left medial sphenoid wing meningioma with histopathological diagnosis of a meningothelial type with apoplexy. A 54-year-old female presented with clinical features suggestive of apoplexy. Her neuroimaging demonstrated a large left medial sphenoid wing meningioma with features suggestive of an intratumoral bleed with mass effect. Gross total excision of the tumor was done with the good postoperative outcome. The biopsy came out to be Grade I meningothelial meningioma. Apoplexy in meningiomas is extremely rare with a reported incidence of 0.5%–2.4%, especially in a nonconvexity meningioma with histopathological diagnosis of meningothelial variety. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention are critical as meningiomas associated with apoplexy are associated with high morbidity.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Spontaneous intracranial meningioma bleeding: clinicopathological features and outcome.

          The aim of this study was to determine the clinicopathological features of patients with intracranial bleeding from unsuspected meningioma and to relate these data to surgery-related outcome. The authors report on two cases in which hemorrhage of an unsuspected meningioma occurred in the tentorial ridge and in the falx, and they discuss the details of 143 cases described in the literature. A bleeding propensity index of the meningioma, related to the patient's age, sex, and the lesion's intracranial location and histological type was computed as a ratio between the frequencies of bleeding meningioma and all meningiomas. This was tested by independent samples t-test for proportions. A chi-square test was used to determine the correlations between several variables: location and type of bleeding; survival and type of bleeding; and consciousness and survival. Increased bleeding tendency was found to be associated with two age groups ( 70 years), convexity and intraventricular locations, and fibrous meningiomas. The overall mortality rate documented in cases of bleeding meningiomas was 21.1% (13.9% in the computerized tomography [CT] scanning era), and that in surgically treated cases was 9.5% (7.5% in the CT scanning era). The overall major morbidity rate was 36% (33.8% in the CT scanning era). Overall 96.2% of conscious patients survived after their meningiomas spontaneously hemorrhaged. In patients who were unconscious before surgery, overall mortality rate was 74.1%, and that in surgically treated cases was 46.2%. The mortality rate in preoperatively conscious patients (those in whom acute deterioration and irreversible brain damage were prevented by early diagnosis and definitive surgery) was similar (< 3% in the CT scanning era) to that documented in cases in which meningiomas did not bleed. In contrast, the associated morbidity rates were much higher. One-stage total removal of the hemorrhagic meningioma and hematoma is the treatment of choice in such patients.
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            Clinico-pathological study of meningiomas with haemorrhagic onset.

             M Niiro,  J Kuratsu,  S Yunoue (2003)
            Haemorrhage from meningiomas is rare and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be determined. We sought to identify these mechanisms by studying clinical and histological records of 6 meningioma patients treated at our institution. We retrospectively studied 6 patients with meningiomas whose acute onset was due to haemorrhage. We evaluated clinical features and imaging studies. The vascularity and proliferative nature of these tumours were examined immunohistochemically and tissue factor (TF) immunoreactivity was assessed. For comparison we evaluated 25 non-haemorrhagic meningiomas. At onset, the haemorrhages mimicked stroke in all 6 patients. On imaging studies, 3 of the haemorrhages were intra- and extratumoural, the other 3 were extratumoural only. Hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI was a characteristic of these meningiomas. Histologically, they were of 3 subtypes, meningothelial (n=3), transitional (n=2), and anaplastic (n=1). The MIB-1 labelling index of the 5 WHO Grade I meningiomas was 5.8+/-2.2. The mean number of CD31-positive blood vessels did not differ in haemorrhagic and non-haemorrhagic meningiomas. The TF-positivity rate of haemorrhagic meningiomas was higher than of non-haemorrhagic meningiomas. The proliferative nature of the meningiomas and TF expression in tumour cells may have contributed to the eventual haemorrhage of the meningiomas in our series.
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              Meningioma with hemorrhagic onset: two case reports.

              Haemorrhage is a rare complication of meningiomas that can occur spontaneously, after embolization, stereotactic radiation and perioperatively. Our first case was a 16 year old male, admitted with spastic quadriparesis, and retention of urine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed anteriorly placed cervical intradural extramedullary mass. Patient underwent emergency surgery following sudden worsening of neurological symptoms and intratumoral bleed was noted peroperatively. Tumor was labeled as angiomatous meningioma with hemorrhage. The second case was of a 45 year female who presented with history of sudden onset weakness in right upper and lower limb followed by unconsciousness. MRI revealed heterogeneous lesion in left parasagittal area with intratumoral bleed. Left frontal craniotomy with tumour decompression was performed. Tumour was labelled as meningothelial meningioma with haemorrhage. Meningiomas with hemorrhagic onset remain rare, and pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Prevention and outcome of intratumoral haemorrhage highly depends on early diagnosis and adequate treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Asian J Neurosurg
                Asian J Neurosurg
                AJNS
                Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                1793-5482
                2248-9614
                Jul-Sep 2019
                : 14
                : 3
                : 961-963
                Affiliations
                Department of Neurosurgery, SGPGI, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Kuntal Kanti Das, Department of Neurosurgery, SGPGI, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: kkdas@ 123456sgpgi.ac.in
                Article
                AJNS-14-961
                10.4103/ajns.AJNS_10_19
                6702986
                Copyright: © 2019 Asian Journal of Neurosurgery

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Surgery

                sphenoid wing, nonconvexity, meningothelial, meningioma, intratumoral hemorrhage

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