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      Assessing Knowledge Gaps of Women and Healthcare Providers Concerning Cardiovascular Risk After Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy—A Scoping Review


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          Background: A history of a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy (HDP) at least doubles a woman's risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk increases within 10 years after HDP and continues for life, making long-term health after HDP of major public health importance. Understanding knowledge gaps in health care professionals and women regarding cardiovascular health after HDP is an important component in addressing these risks.

          Objectives: The primary aim was to examine what women and healthcare providers (HCP) know about cardiovascular risks after HDP. The secondary aims were to identify enablers and barriers to knowledge and action on knowledge.

          Methods: A scoping review was conducted. This was a narrative synthesis, using PRISMA-ScR guidelines, of English-language full text articles that included assessment of knowledge of women, and/or HCP, on long term cardiovascular risk after HDP. The databases Embase, Medline, Scopus, ProQuest, Cochrane, and PsycInfo were searched from 01 January 2005 to 31 May 2019.

          Results: Twelve studies were included, six addressing women's knowledge, five addressing HCP knowledge, and one addressing both. The studies included 402 women and 1,215 HCP from seven countries. Regarding women's knowledge, six of seven studies found women had limited or no knowledge about the link between HDP and CVD. Where women were aware of the link, the majority had sourced their own information, rather than obtaining it through their HCP. In five of six studies, HCP also mostly had limited knowledge about HDP-CVD links. Primary enablers for HCP acquisition of knowledge and counseling were the availability and knowledge of guidelines. Where comparisons between HCP groups were made, obstetricians had greater knowledge than family physicians, internal medical specialists, or midwives.

          Conclusion: There was a low level of knowledge amongst HCP and women about increased CVD risk after HDP. Where women had higher levels of knowledge, the information was often obtained informally rather than from HCP. There were variations in knowledge of HCP, with obstetricians generally more aware than other professions. Further country and context-specific research on current status of women's and HCP's knowledge is therefore necessary when creating educational strategies to address knowledge gaps after HDP.

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          Most cited references35

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          Cardiovascular sequelae of preeclampsia/eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

          Preeclampsia affects 3% to 5% of gestations and eclampsia 0.05% to 0.93%, but their subsequent cardiovascular sequelae are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine if women with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia are at increased risk of long-term cardiovascular sequelae. From Medline and Embase searches, we included case-control and cohort studies that examined cardiac, cerebrovascular or peripheral arterial disease, or cardiovascular mortality>6 weeks postpartum, in women with and without a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia and that controlled for or matched for confounders. Two independent reviewers determined study eligibility and extracted data. Five case-control and 10 cohort studies met eligibility criteria, with a total of 116,175 women with and 2,259,576 women without preeclampsia/eclampsia. Most studies focused on women<56 years of age. Relative to women with uncomplicated pregnancies, women with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia had an increased risk of subsequent cardiac disease in both the case-control studies (odds ratio 2.47, 95% CI 1.22-5.01) and the cohort studies (relative risk [RR] 2.33, 1.95-2.78), as well as an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (RR 2.03, 1.54-2.67), peripheral arterial disease (RR 1.87, 0.94-3.73), and cardiovascular mortality (RR 2.29, 1.73-3.04). Meta-regression revealed a graded relationship between the severity of preeclampsia/eclampsia and the risk of cardiac disease (mild: RR 2.00, 1.83-2.19, moderate: RR 2.99, 2.51-3.58, severe: RR 5.36, 3.96-7.27, P<.0001). Women with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia have approximately double the risk of early cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Further research is needed to determine the mechanisms underlying these associations and to identify effective prevention strategies.
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            Cardiovascular disease risk in women with pre-eclampsia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

            There is increasing evidence that pre-eclampsia, a principal cause of maternal morbidity, may also be a risk factor for future cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. This review aimed to assess the current evidence and quantify the risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebrovascular events and hypertension associated with prior diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. Medline and Embase were searched with no language restrictions, as were core journals and reference lists from reviews up until January 2012. Case-control and cohort studies which reported cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases or hypertension diagnosed more than 6 weeks postpartum, in women who had a history of pre-eclampsia relative to women who had unaffected pregnancies, were included. Fifty articles were included in the systematic review and 43 in the meta-analysis. Women with a history of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia were at significantly increased odds of fatal or diagnosed CVD [odds ratio (OR) = 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.87, 2.78], cerebrovascular disease (OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.43, 2.21) and hypertension [relative risk (RR) = 3.13, 95% CI 2.51, 3.89]. Among pre-eclamptic women, pre-term delivery was not associated with an increased risk of a future cardiovascular event (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.79, 2.22). Women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia are at increased risk of future cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, with an estimated doubling of odds compared to unaffected women. This has implications for the follow-up of all women who experience pre-eclampsia, not just those who deliver pre-term. This association may reflect shared common risk factors for both pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
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              SOMANZ guidelines for the management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 2014.

              This guideline is an evidence based, practical clinical approach to the management of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Since the previous SOMANZ guideline published in 2008, there has been significant international progress towards harmonisation of definitions in relation to both the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. This reflects increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of these conditions, as well as their clinical manifestations. In addition, the guideline includes the management of chronic hypertension in pregnancy, an approach to screening, advice regarding prevention of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and discussion of recurrence risks and long term risk to maternal health. The literature reviewed included the previous SOMANZ Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy guideline from 2008 and its reference list, plus all other published National and International Guidelines on this subject. Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CCRCT), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Evidence Search, and Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effects (DARE) were searched for literature published between January 2007 and March, 2014.

                Author and article information

                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front. Cardiovasc. Med.
                Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                29 November 2019
                : 6
                [1] 1Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney , Sydney, NSW, Australia
                [2] 2School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of NSW , Sydney, NSW, Australia
                [3] 3Global Women's Health Program, The George Institute for Global Health , Sydney, NSW, Australia
                [4] 4Department of Women's and Children's Health, St George Hospital , Sydney, NSW, Australia
                [5] 5Burnet Institute, Maternal and Child Health , Melbourne, VIC, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Guido Iaccarino, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

                Reviewed by: Teresa Strisciuglio, AZ Sint-Jan Brugge-Oostende AV, Belgium; Roberto Annunziata, Hospital of Santa Maria della Misericordia in Perugia, Italy; Antonio Cano, University of Valencia, Spain

                *Correspondence: Heike Roth heike.roth@ 123456student.uts.edu.au

                This article was submitted to Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Prevention, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Copyright © 2019 Roth, LeMarquand, Henry and Homer.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 45, Pages: 9, Words: 8308
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                Systematic Review

                knowledge,women,healthcare providers,preeclampsia,hypertension,cardiovascular risk


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