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      Insoluble-Bound Phenolics in Food


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          This contribution provides a review of the topic of insoluble-bound phenolics, especially their localization, synthesis, transfer and formation in plant cells, as well as their metabolism in the human digestive system and corresponding bioactivities. In addition, their release from the food matrix during food processing and extraction methods are discussed. The synthesis of phenolics takes place mainly at the endoplasmic reticulum and they are then transferred to each organ through transport proteins such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter at the organ’s compartment membrane or via transport vesicles such as cytoplasmic and Golgi vesicles, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolics at the vacuole and cell wall matrix, respectively. This part has not been adequately discussed in the food science literature, especially regarding the synthesis site and their transfer at the cellular level, thus this contribution provides valuable information to the involved scientists. The bound phenolics cannot be absorbed at the small intestine as the soluble phenolics do (5%–10%), thus passing into the large intestine and undergoing fermentation by a number of microorganisms, partially released from cell wall matrix of foods. Bound phenolics such as phenolic acids and flavonoids display strong bioactivities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation and cardiovascular disease ameliorating effects. They can be extracted by several methods such as acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis to quantify their contents in foods. In addition, they can also be released from the cell wall matrix during food processing procedures such as fermentation, germination, roasting, extrusion cooking and boiling. This review provides critical information for better understanding the insoluble-bound phenolics in food and fills an existing gap in the literature.

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          Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review

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            Flavonoids as antioxidants in plants: location and functional significance.

            Stress-responsive dihydroxy B-ring-substituted flavonoids have great potential to inhibit the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduce the levels of ROS once they are formed, i.e., to perform antioxidant functions. These flavonoids are located within or in the proximity of centers of ROS generation in severely stressed plants. Efficient mechanisms have been recently identified for the transport of flavonoids from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of their biosynthesis, to different cellular compartments. The mechanism underlying flavonoid-mediated ROS reduction in plants is still unclear. 'Antioxidant' flavonoids are found in the chloroplast, which suggests a role as scavengers of singlet oxygen and stabilizers of the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. Dihydroxy B-ring substituted flavonoids are present in the nucleus of mesophyll cells and may inhibit ROS-generation making complexes with Fe and Cu ions. The genes that govern the biosynthesis of antioxidant flavonoids are present in liverworts and mosses and are mostly up-regulated as a consequence of severe stress. This suggests that the antioxidant flavonoid metabolism is a robust trait of terrestrial plants. Vacuolar dihydroxy B-ring flavonoids have been reported to serve as co-substrates for vacuolar peroxidases to reduce H(2)O(2) escape from the chloroplast, following the depletion of ascorbate peroxidase activity. Antioxidant flavonoids may effectively control key steps of cell growth and differentiation, thus acting regulating the development of the whole plant and individual organs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              A review on the dietary flavonoid kaempferol.

              Epidemiological studies have revealed that a diet rich in plant-derived foods has a protective effect on human health. Identifying bioactive dietary constituents is an active area of scientific investigation that may lead to new drug discovery. Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g. tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g. Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Some epidemiological studies have found a positive association between the consumption of foods containing kaempferol and a reduced risk of developing several disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that kaempferol and some glycosides of kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-osteoporotic, estrogenic/antiestrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic and antiallergic activities. In this article, the distribution of kaempferol in the plant kingdom and its pharmacological properties are reviewed. The pharmacokinetics (e.g. oral bioavailability, metabolism, plasma levels) and safety of kaempferol are also analyzed. This information may help understand the health benefits of kaempferol-containing plants and may contribute to develop this flavonoid as a possible agent for the prevention and treatment of some diseases.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                10 September 2016
                September 2016
                : 21
                : 9
                : 1216
                Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL A1B 3X9, Canada; judy1894@ 123456naver.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: fshahidi@ 123456mun.ca ; Tel.: +1-709-864-8552
                © 2016 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 10 August 2016
                : 05 September 2016

                bound phenolics,localization and transfer of phenolics,bioactivity,release from cell wall matrix


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