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      Chitosan based-nanoparticles and nanocapsules: Overview, physicochemical features, applications of a nanofibrous scaffold, and bioprinting

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          Preparation, characterization, and potential application of chitosan, chitosan derivatives, and chitosan metal nanoparticles in pharmaceutical drug delivery

          Naturally occurring polymers, particularly of the polysaccharide type, have been used pharmaceutically for the delivery of a wide variety of therapeutic agents. Chitosan, the second abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide next to cellulose, is a biocompatible and biodegradable mucoadhesive polymer that has been extensively used in the preparation of micro-as well as nanoparticles. The prepared particles have been exploited as a potential carrier for different therapeutic agents such as peptides, proteins, vaccines, DNA, and drugs for parenteral and nonparenteral administration. Therapeutic agent-loaded chitosan micro- or nanoparticles were found to be more stable, permeable, and bioactive. In this review, we are highlighting the different methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan micro- and nanoparticles, while reviewing the pharmaceutical applications of these particles in drug delivery. Moreover, the roles of chitosan derivatives and chitosan metal nanoparticles in drug delivery have been illustrated.
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            Development and Cell Biology of the Blood-Brain Barrier

            The vertebrate vasculature displays high organotypic specialization, with the structure and function of blood vessels catering to the specific needs of each tissue. A unique feature of the central nervous system (CNS) vasculature is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB regulates substance influx and efflux to maintain a homeostatic environment for proper brain function. Here, we review the development and cell biology of the BBB, focusing on the cellular and molecular regulation of barrier formation and the maintenance of the BBB through adulthood. We summarize unique features of CNS endothelial cells and highlight recent progress in and general principles of barrier regulation. Finally, we illustrate why a mechanistic understanding of the development and maintenance of the BBB could provide novel therapeutic opportunities for CNS drug delivery.
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              Chitosan nanoparticles preparation and applications

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
                International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
                Elsevier BV
                01418130
                January 2021
                January 2021
                : 167
                : 1176-1197
                Article
                10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.072
                33197477
                d129eb15-d6d0-47e5-ad63-337919e0bdb2
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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